TABLE OF CONTENTS
Overview .................................... 1
Victory Conditions .......................... 1
Before You Play ............................. 2
IBM Instructions ....................... 2
IBM Loading Instructions ............... 3
Menus .................................. 3
Select Scenario ............................. 4
Player Control .............................. 4
Overview of Play ............................ 5
Selecting Action ............................ 5
Turn Sequence ............................... 6
Axis Player Phase ...................... 6
Soviet Player Phase .................... 6
Events ...................................... 6
Partisan Activity ........................... 7
Supply ...................................... 7
HQ Control .................................. 8
Replacements/Readiness Recovery ............ 11
Replacements .......................... 11
Readiness ............................. 12
General Orders ............................. 13
The Map ............................... 13
Movement .............................. 14
Transferring Units .................... 15
Headquarters (HQ) ..................... 15
Adding and Removing Units ............. 16
Examining Units ....................... 16
Cities and Production ................. 17
Air Operations ........................ 18
Combat Resolution .......................... 19
Combat ................................ 20
Production and Resources ................... 25
Campaign Summary and Technical Notes ....... 28
Campaign Summary ........................... 29
Charts Appendix ............................ 35
Weather, Terrain and Movement Tables .. 35
Cities ................................ 35
Aircraft .............................. 37
Tanks ................................. 38
Leaders ............................... 39
Formulas Appendix .......................... 40
Events Formulas ....................... 40
Combat Formulas ...................... 40
IBM Command Summary Chart .................. 41
Player Tips & Hints ........................ 42
Index ...................................... 43
On June 22, 1941, the German army turned towards the Soviet Union and launched Operation Barbarossa, the largest military campaign the world has ever seen. In the final analysis this campaign brought defeat for the Axis as it had for Napoleon in the preceding century, but not before the Germans had marched nearly to the gates of Moscow. Many historians feel that without interference from Hitler, the German commanders might very well have avoided the fate of Napoleon and won the war on this critical front. Now you may command the forces on what became known as Hitler's Second Front and compare your strategic skills to those of the commanders that have preceded you.
You may play either the Axis or Soviet forces against the computer or select the two player option against a human opponent. As supreme commander, you direct corps level movement and combat operations, order air missions, and control the production of war materials in your factories.
In Second Front you issue strategic level orders to your corps. Each corps is made up of from I to 8 divisions, and you may transfer individual divisions between corps. When you examine divisions and view combat results you will see your assets and combat results to the individual plane, vehicle, and infantry squad level.
The Second Front map is based on an invisible hex-grid system. In the full board 1941 and 1942 scenarios the map spans the entire theater of operations, from Berlin in the west to past Moscow in the east, and runs from Finland to south of Sevastapol. Each hex is 20 miles across and each turn represents 1 week of real time.
Select from two full board scenarios or two limited-area scenarios. The starting dates range from the start of the Eastern Campaigns in 1941 to the Axis offensive in 1942. Scenarios are played until one side meets victory conditions or until the date listed in the scenario description.
Players receive points for capturing key enemy cities. For the Axis player to achieve victory, he must hold 5 points in Soviet cities. The Soviet player will win if he holds 4 points worth of Axis cities. The key cities vary between scenarios.
1941 & 1942 Scenario Points
Axis Points Soviet Points
Baku 1 pt Berlin 3 pt
Gorky 1 pt Hamburg 2 pt
Groznyy 1 pt Nurnburg 1 pt
Leningrad 1 pt Prague 1 pt
Moscow 3 pt Vienna 1 pt
Saralov 1 pt
Stalingrad 1 pt
Moscow Scenario Points
Axis Points SovietPoints
Gorki 1 pt Demyansk 1 pt
Kalin 2 pt Orel 1 pt
Moscow 3 pt Rzhev 1 pt
Smolensk 1 pt
Vyazma 1 pt
Stalingrad Scenario Points
Axis Points Soviet Points
Astrakahn 1 pt Kharkov 2 pt
Baku 2 pt Roslov 2 pt
Groznyy 2 pt Slalino 1 pt
Maikop 1 pt Voronezh 1 pt
Stalingrad 2 pt
Victory conditions are checked at the end of each full turn. If the date reaches the first week of July, 1945, without either player meeting victory conditions, then the game is a draw.
BEFORE YOU PLAY
What Comes With This Game
You should receive the following with this game:
Data Card (some systems)
This game has no physical copy protection on the disk, so please make a backup copy and put the original away for safekeeping. Use the information that came with your computer to make the backup copies.
To verify that you have a legitimate copy of the game you will be asked to answer a question using information from this manual.
Make sure your NUMLOCK key is off before playing.
To select commands on the IBM refer to the Command Summary Chart on page 41. To move the cursor or to plot movement use the following keys on the numeric keypad:
7 NNW 9 NNE
4 W 6 E
1 SSW 3 SSE
To move the cursor around the map in large increments use these keys:
Use the cursor controls or the 2 and 8 keys on the numeric keypad to select options on vertical menus and then press ENTER/RETURN. To select the Balance level from the Player Control menu use the cursor controls or the 4 and 6 keys on the keypad.
Press ENTER/RETURN to designate movement destinations and air operation targets.
Display/Delay Level for Combat
To change the display level and delay during Combat Resolution, press the <SPACE> bar to bring up the menu. Change the display level values with the 8 and 6 keys on the keypad, the 4 and 6 keys will change the delay. Press ENTER/RETURN to exit.
If you cannot remember a command, simply press to get a help screen.
IBM Loading Instructions
Second Front can be played either from a single floppy drive or from a hard disk. The following instructions explain how to play on either system configuration.
When playing from floppy disk it is especially important to make a play copy. Make the copy following the instructions in your DOS manual.
1. Format a blank disk for game saves following the instructions in your DOS manual. You cannot format a disk while playing the game.
2. Insert game disk in default drive.
3. Type: START to begin play.
4. Press any key to exit title screen.
5. Answer copy verification question with information from this manual.
6. Follow the instructions from this manual to play.
To save games while playing on a floppy system, remove your game disk from the default drive and insert your formatted save disk.
Second Front on the IBM is completely RAM resident, and requires no disk access during actual game play.
Hard Disk System
Before you play the first time on a hard disk you must install the game onto your system.
1. Place your Game Disk in drive A and type A:. You may substitute the B drive if that is your 5.25" drive.
2. Type INSTALL (destination drive letter). If you are going to install to a C drive you would type INSTALL C.
3. Follow all prompts to install.
1. Enter the Second Front directory by typing CD\SF from the hard disk root directory.
2. Type START to begin play.
3. Press any key to exit title screen.
4. Answer copy verification question with information from this manual.
5. Follow the instructions from this manual to play.
Games are automatically saved to the SF\SAVE subdirectory. This subdirectory is created when you run the installation program.
All play in Second Front is controlled by easy to follow pop-up menus and displays. During General Orders the menu titles will appear along with information about corps, supply and so on. During combat the Display/Level
menu controls the level of detail for the Combat Resolution display.
This menu allows you to select whether you will play a saved game or start one of the scenarios. The Campaign Summaries section starting on page 29 shows the initial battle lines for these scenarios as well as the general course of the whole campaign and other theaters as well.
CAMPAIGN '41 starts the game at the beginning of 'Operation Barbarossa' in the week of June 22, 1941. In this campaign the Germans gain the initial special Blitzkrieg effects that are described in the Supply section later in the manual. This scenario will end in a draw after the first week of July, 1945 if neither side has met its victory conditions.
CAMPAIGN '42 is the beginning of the 1942 Axis offensive. The starting date for this campaign is the week of June 28, 1942, and the campaign was referred to as Operation 'Case Blue' This scenario will end in a draw after the first week of July, 1945 if neither side has met its victory conditions.
STALINGRAD starts on the same date as the 1942 campaign, but the operation area is limited to the area around Stalingrad. The map runs from Kiev in the west to Kazan to east of Stalingrad. This scenario will end in a draw after the first week of April, 1943 if neither side has met its victory conditions.
MOSCOW starts with the collapse of the Kiev pocket in the week of September 21, 1941. The Axis forces are poised for the drive towards Moscow that ended historically with the Soviets making a successful, though costly, stand at very nearly the gates of their capital city. The map runs from Bucharest in the west to east of Moscow. This scenario will end in a draw after the last week of February, 1942 if neither side has met its victory conditions.
This allows you to select who will play each side and to set the balance of the game.
BALANCE: EVEN, HELP AXIS/SOVIET, MAXIMUM HELP AXIS/SOVIET
COMPUTER/HUMAN player options select who will play each side. These options may be changed during play by selecting the CHANGE PLAYER/BALANCE option. With these options you may play through games commanding the side with the most interesting strategic situation, or replay saved games to see if you can do better than your opponent in an identical situation.
BALANCE: EVEN, HELP AXIS/SOVIET, MAMMUM HELP AXIS/SOVIET alters the game to favor one side or the other. The player receiving HELP adjustments gets the following bonuses:
Production of war equipment is doubled.
Player receives double normal infantry replacements.
Player receives Axis Blitzkrieg supply bonuses on all clear weather turns.
The player receiving MAXIMUM HELP adjustments gets the HELP bonuses plus the following:
Readiness is recovered at double normal rate.
Player loses 5% readiness per player phase instead of 25% for normal attrition.
OVERVIEW OF PLAY
Most of the player interaction with the game occurs during the General Orders phase. In this phase the player may move troops and issue orders that will be carried out during the Combat Resolution phase. The player can evaluate the condition of his units, and view estimated strengths for enemy corps. Commanders may be replaced and production facilities can be ordered to alter the type of equipment they manufacture. To end the General Orders phase, players select the Quit command and go to the Select Type of Action menu.
The following menu is used to save games and move between the different phases during play.
SELECT TYPE OF ACTION
GENERAL ORDERS is the player control phase. Here you issue all orders regarding movement, combat, and production. You may also examine your cities and other resources and evaluate the overall strategic situation. See the General Orders section for more information.
COMBAT RESOLUTION will execute commands issued during
General Orders phase, resolve combat, and then go on to Supply, HQ Control, and Replacement /Readiness phases. All of these phases are described later in the manual.
SAVE GAME will store the current game to disk. See the instructions for your computer or look at the Data Card that came with the game for information on saving games with your system.
CHANGE PLAYER/BALANCE will take you back to the Player Control menu described earlier.
Each game turn consists of the following sequence of phases:
Axis Player Phase:
Soviet Player Phase:
CHECK VICTORY CONDITIONS
While you command the action on the Eastern Front, the rest of the war still rages. In the events phase, the computer will determine how the war is going for the Axis on the Western and Italian Fronts. The computer will check the relative strengths of Axis and Allied forces on each front. Whenever the Axis is weaker than the Allies on a front, an event will occur. Events are historical turning points in the war such as the Allies gaining beachheads in Italy or the capture of the German Afrika Korps. These events will slowly affect the Axis player's industry and overall war capabilities. The strengths on the fronts are calculated with the formulas found in the Formulas Appendix in the Campaign Summary & Technical Data section.
The Axis troops for the Western Front are located in the West Front HQ in Germany. The Italian Front troops are located in the Italian Front HQ. No actual combat will occur with units in these areas. Except for the surrender of the Axis Afrika Korps units, the effect of an event occurring is that the main HQ for that front is shattered. For more information on shattering look under Combat Results in the Combat Resolution section.
If you wish to reinforce these fronts or to remove units you may do so as with any other units. If these fronts are left alone, the war in these areas will approximately follow the historical timeline. If you remove troops or reinforce the fronts, you will alter the timeline accordingly. For a summary of the historical WWII timeline, see the Campaign Summary & Technical Data section starting on page 29.
Throughout the war the Axis was greatly troubled by the actions of partisan freedom fighters. During this phase partisan bands will operate behind the Axis lines and attempt to damage rail and supply lines. From 1941 to 1942 the partisans will only be active in Russia. Starting in 1943 resistance bands will begin operating in Poland and Yugoslavia also. As the war progresses, the level of partisan resistance will rise dramatically.
Hexes with partisan activity will be marked with a cursor, and you will be notified that activities are occurring during this phase. Hexes that have fallen under partisan control are treated as any other enemy controlled hex. The likelihood of partisans gaining control of an unoccupied hex is based on the Axis Supply Level of the area and the presence of combat troops.
Partisan Bands and Strength
There are several separate bands of partisans operating in each of the countries. If bands operate unmolested they will grow, recruiting new members and gaining additional strength. When partisans attempt a mission in a hex with combat troops, they risk losing that operational group and part or all of their total strength.
The supply calculation phase will determine whether or not your supply lines are delivering the food, ammunition and other supplies necessary to maintain the effective combat readiness of your divisions in the field. Supply lines are the paths materials travel to reach your units. Supply is affected by several factors such as weather and distance from friendly rail lines. When you move the cursor around the map during General Orders, the Supply Level (SL) for a hex will be displayed on the right half of the bottom display.
Normally the highest SL for a hex is 6. Cities in naval supply may have a SL of 7. There are other special naval supply rules under Naval Supply later in this section. The Axis player will receive SLs of 10 during the initial Blitzkrieg at the start of the 1941 Campaign. See the Blitzkrieg section later in this section.
Supply lines only pass through friendly controlled hexes. Hexes will convert to friendly control immediately if friendly corps move through them, or at the end of the Supply Phase if there is no enemy in the hex and its SL is 2 or greater while enemy SL is 0. Hexes that have been overrun will reconvert back to enemy control if enemy SL is 2 or greater while friendly SL is 0.
The highest SLs are at friendly operational rail hexes, and then drop off at 1 SL per hex from there.
Recently captured rail is not necessarily available even if the rail hex is under friendly control. The Soviet and Axis forces ran on different gauge rail, and so the existing lines must be converted before they become operational. A rail hex will become operational, beyond the existing railhead, when it is at SL 4 or higher and under friendly control. During the Blitzkrieg, Axis SL must be 8 or higher for rail to convert. During poor weather rail becomes operational at a slower rate. Rail becomes operational at the end of the Supply phase. The Examine Rail command during General Orders will show you all friendly and enemy operational rail lines.
For example: 1 hex away from an operational friendly rail will have a SL of 5, 2 hexes away will have 4 and so on.
Mountain and swamp hexes drop the SL 2 points when the supply line passes through them.
For example swamp or mountain hex adjacent to an operational rail hex would have a SL of 5, but the next hex would have a SL of 3 instead of 4.
Weather will affect the SL of all noncity hexes. Units in cities are treated as if they are in clear weather conditions unless the weather is blizzard, in which case they will have SLs equivalent to non-city snow conditions. There is a chart of weather effects on page 35.
Divisions will receive a 20% SL bonus if they are within the parent HQ's control area. HQ control area is defined under the HQ Control Section. Divisions directly assigned to HQs receive double their normal SL.
If the Axis player holds Constanta at SL 5 or higher, then Odessa, Rostov, Sevastapol and Novorossiysk will add 1 to their SL from naval supply if also held.
If the Soviet player holds Novorossiysk at SL 5 or higher, then Odessa, Rostov, Sevastapol and Constanta will add 1 to their SL from naval supply if also held.
If the Soviet player holds Leningrad at less than a SL of 2 and controls the hexes located at 41,6 and 44,6 with SLs greater than 1, then Leningrad and hex 41,6 will have SL of 5. During the warm months these areas were serviced by naval supply. During the winter months the Soviets built a connecting rail line and road across the frozen lake Ladoga to the east of Leningrad for supply.
At the start of the 1941 campaign the Axis player has the benefit of special Blitzkrieg rules. This represents the initial preparation and stockpiling the Germans did prior to Operation Barbarossa. These special rules are only in effect for the first 6 weeks of the 1941 Campaign.
The base SL for Axis rail during Blitzkrieg is 10 instead of 6. Rail will convert to Axis operation at SL 8 or higher instead of 4.
Each corps receives orders and supplies from one HQ. Parent HQs can be determined during General Orders by examining an HQ and seeing which divisions are marked (C), or by placing the cursor over a corps and selecting the Find HQ command.
Each HQ has a Replacement Level which can be changed during General Orders. The replacement level determines at what point subordinate divisions will receive replacements. Replacement Level is described in the Replacements/Readiness Recovery section.
Chain of Command
All combat units are subordinate to a parent HQ. HQs in turn have a position in the chain of command running from front line HQs, to area HQs and finally to the supreme commander. The supreme HQ for the Axis is OKK which in turn controls OKH HQ, which is the supreme HQ for the Eastern Front operations. OKW is generally under the command of Hitler. The supreme HQ for the Soviets is STAVKA, under the command of Stalin.
There are two basic deployments of HQs: frontline, and rear echelon. The frontline HQs are immediately over combat units in the chain of command and directly affect unit SLs and distribution of replacement troops and equipment and combat reinforcements. Rear echelon HQs control frontline HQs and also affect divisions by modifying distribution of replacements.
HQ Control Areas
Each HQ is centered in a control area that measures 11 hexes east/west by 5 hexes north/south. Any subordinate units in that control area receive more direct logistical support, which results in the SL bonus described in the Supply section.
HQs are the only units that may have aircraft assigned to them. HQs may also have combat divisions assigned to them. Combat divisions are generally assigned to HQs as reserves or for recovery. The exception to this is divisions assigned to OKW, West Front and units in the Italian Front. These units are used by the computer for other fronts, and are discussed in the Events section.
Each HQ is under the command of a different historical officer. Each of these officers has a commander effectiveness rating ranging from 1 to 9. These ratings are in the Campaign Summary & Technical Data section on page 29.
Commander ratings affect several aspects of combat. At the start of every battle commanders may be able to gain additional readiness for that conflict. Commander ratings are checked to see if a retreating unit shatters, and if not, how much readiness is lost. Combat reinforcements are more likely to be issued by better commanders. A good commander, in many cases, will greatly affect the results of a battle.
During General Orders you may replace commanders from a pool of unassigned officers. This is described under Replacing Commanders in the General Orders section. Commanders on both sides may be relieved from duty by the computer for reasons such as incompetence and treason. If the leader is not executed, he will be returned to the leader pool after a time.
Battles are generally directed by the commander of the immediately superior HQ, but leaders further up the chain of command may step in during any battle to direct the action. This is random and completely under computer control. The officer that is actually directing the battle is the one for whom commander effectiveness checks are made.
HQs will sometimes order subordinate units to reinforce corps during Combat Resolution. When a corps is reinforced a message similar to the following will appear:
Guderian reinforces 39th Panzer Korps with 122nd Infantry Div
Reinforcements will only be assigned to and from corps in the control area of the parent HQ. Units which have overrun their parent HQ control area are unable to receive combat reinforcements. While the reinforcement will only occur in the parent HQ control area, the order to reinforce is issued by the leader commanding the battle, wherever he falls in the chain of command.
HQs with aircraft will sometimes send air support to subordinate units during Combat Resolution. This is randomized and always under computer control.
During this phase divisions will receive replacement troops and equipment, as well as regain some or all of the readiness lost during movement and combat from preceding turns.
The Replacement Level of a division's parent HQ will determine when it will receive troops and equipment. The default setting for replacement level is 50%, which means that divisions must be reduced to 50% of their full compliment before they start receiving replacements. Once a division is below its replacement level, it will automatically receive replacements until it reaches its replacement level again. To change the replacement level see the Headquarters section under General Orders.
Replacements are taken from a Replacement Pool of equipment that may be examined during General Orders. The replacement pool is made of new troops and equipment, and repaired armored vehicles that have been damaged during combat. Recruitment and production levels are set by the computer, but you can control what type of equipment is produced in your factories. For the description of the replacement pool and altering production see Cities and Production under the General Orders section.
During the Replacements Phase equipment is sometimes upgraded. There are two types of upgrading: new equipment replacements and refitting. When a new type of equipment is available in large enough quantities it will be used to replace older equipment in the mechanized divisions. New equipment will tend to be issued first to divisions that have suffered heavy casualties. Upgrading can also be done by players during General Orders by examining a mechanized division and changing its type. This is described in the General Orders section under Examining Units.
Older equipment will be automatically refitted with upgraded capabilities. Two examples of this are the Axis PZ II tanks which will be refitted with larger guns and become Marder III's, and the Axis anti-tank (AT) guns which are refitted each year of the war to increase their firepower.
The Soviet replacement will automatically receive Lend Lease equipment from the Allies. Lend Lease equipment enters the Soviet Union through the port of Murmansk and may be viewed during General Orders with the Examine Off Map Cities command. This equipment is allocated exactly like any other replacement equipment.
Readiness is the percentage of forces in a division that are actually prepared for combat. Only ready troops count towards combat effectiveness. Readiness is lost during movement, combat and from normal attrition. Readiness is regained based on a divisioiYs SL. To determine the readiness of your divisions during General Orders, place the cursor over a corps and select the Get command, then select the letter of the division to examine.
All divisions, on both sides, automatically lose 25% of their current readiness from normal attrition at the beginning of each player phase (twice per turn). Sub-divisions, such as tank battalions, attached to divisions lose 5% per phase.
Divisions lose readiness whenever they move or are transferred. This is discussed under General Orders. Non-mechanized divisions will lose readiness at twice the rate of mechanized divisions when marching or plotting.
Defending units automatically lose 10% of their readiness whenever they are attacked. This includes air and ground attacks.
Whenever units are forced to retreat from a battle, they suffer readiness loss. Units automatically lose 10% readiness for retreating. Additionally, there is a random chance, based on the commander rating, that the unit may lose an additional 40%.
Oil supplies can reduce overall readiness if they drop below 100. The lower the off reserves go below 100, the higher the probability that it will affect readiness. Oil reserves are displayed just before the General Orders phase during the Supply phase or can be viewed during General Orders.
Blizzard - 1941
During the blizzards of 1941 all Axis forces (except Finns) east of Warsaw suffer extra losses to readiness. Axis forces will lose 20% of their readiness after the Supply phase, and 10% of their Infantry troops before the Replacements/Readiness Recovery phase.
Soviets will lose an additional 20% readiness during every player phase for all clear weather turns in 1941. This reflects the general state of unpreparedness of the Soviet military at the start of the war.
Divisions will automatically recover readiness at a rate based on their hex SL.
During the General Orders phase you may move and transfer troops, attack enemy corps, direct air operations and examine troops and cities. The following section will describe the functions of commands and explain your options. To access the specific commands on your computer system, refer to the Command Summary in this manual or the Data Card that came with your game.
To move the cursor around the map, select Map Mode and use the direction controls. The Toggle Map command will flip between the large view Strategic Map and the close-up Tactical Map. To determine which hexes are enemy controlled select View Enemy Controlled Hexes. This is very helpful when estimating supply lines and preparing movement orders. To see friendly and enemy controlled rail lines, select Examine Rail.
There are three modes of troop movement: March, Rail and Plot. Rail movement is only available if a corps is on a friendly operational rail hex and has sufficient rail movement available. Plotted movement is used to move troops through enemy controlled hexes and into combat.
When units do not move during a turn they may automatically entrench. Entrenchment is covered under Combat Resolution.
To march a corps, place the cursor over the unit, select March Mode, move the cursor to the corps' destination and place the unit. While you move the cursor you will see the following on the right side of the bottom of the screen:
MOVE COST: #%
RAIL AVAIL: #
MOVE COST is the percentage of your total available readiness that will be lost moving the corps to the destination hex. RAIL AVAIL indicates the amount of empty rail cars available to carry the corps. Each tank uses 3 rail points, guns use 2 and infantry uses 1.
Troops cannot march into, through or from enemy controlled hexes or hexes with SL 0. These hexes may only be plotted into or from. The View Enemy Controlled Hexes command is helpful when preparing to move troops.
Corps cannot plot after they have marched. HQs cannot launch air operations after marching.
To use rail, corps must be on a friendly controlled rail hex and have sufficient rail movement available.
The Examine Rail command will display all enemy and friendly rail lines. To enter rail mode, place the cursor over the corps, select March Mode, and press 'R'. Move the cursor to the destination hex and place the unit. As you move the cursor to the unit's destination the percentage of rail and march movement used will be displayed.
MOVE COST: #%
RAIL COST: #
RAIL AVAIL: #
Rail Available refers to the total amount of room available on rail cars. This number will drop as you move units. It is best to move large units first as they use more rail than smaller units.
Corps may march after rail movement if they have sufficient movement remaining, but they may not plot.
Divisions lose 1% readiness per hex during rail movement.
Plotting is used to move troops into enemy controlled hexes and to engage enemy troops. Plotted moves do not actually take place until the Combat Resolution phase. Each plot will take place during a different segment, or pulse, during Combat Resolution.
To plot movement, place the cursor over the corps, and select Plot Mode. After placing a corps in plot mode, use the cursor controls to designate each move, or plot, the unit is to perform during Combat Resolution. Follow the instructions displayed on the screen to end plotting for the current unit. Both mechanized and non-mechanized corps may enter 5 keystrokes of plot instructions. These key strokes may include movement, null-plots or indicate static attacks.
Pressing 'S' after a direction plot will designate a static attack against an enemy unit. The static attack uses 2 keystrokes. When a static attack is ordered the unit will not advance into the hex in the event of a victory. Static attacks are common with coordinated operations and when attacking from a city.
Pressing '0' (the zero key) will order a null-plot, and the unit will not move for that pulse. Null-plots are often used to coordinate attacks or to wait to avoid being blocked from movement by friendly units.
As you indicate your plots they will be displayed on the left side of the bottom display for you to verify. To cancel existing plots press 'C'.
Mechanized corps may plot 5 moves per turn if they are in SL 1 or greater. They may plot 2 moves per turn if they are in SL 0 or the current weather is rain. Non-mechanized corps may plot 2 moves per turn regardless of weather or SL.
As divisions move into a hex they lose 10% readiness plus additional losses based on the terrain and weather conditions. There are tables of plot costs on page 35.
Combat divisions may be transferred to HQs and corps during General Orders. There is a special Air Transfer mode for aircraft.
To transfer divisions, move the cursor over the corps to receive the new divisions, select Transfer Mode, move the cursor to the corps to give up divisions and select the Get command. Select the letters of all divisions to transfer and then exit.
Divisions being transferred suffer a loss of readiness based on the distance moved. If divisions are transferred between units that are both on active rail, then rail mode will be used. If either the giving or receiving units are not on an active rail line then transferred divisions will be marched.
You cannot transfer divisions in or out of corps in a hex with SL 0.
Corps cannot plot after transfernng units but they can march.
Air Transfer Mode
Aircraft may only be transferred between HQs. To transfer aircraft move the cursor over the HQ to receive the new divisions, enter Air Transfer Mode, move the cursor to the unit to give up aircraft and select the Get command. Select me letter of all aircraft to transfer and then exit.
HQs are important to the correct functioning of your frontline combat corps. HQs supply air support for the war effort, and affect SL and replacement levels.
A commander may be relieved from duty and replaced by another commander from the commander pool. To do this place the cursor over the HQ and select the Get command, then follow the directions on the screen. When a commander is removed from an HQ he will be returned to the pool.
The Axis player may not remove commanders from Axis-Ally units such as Finnish or Rumanian HQs.
Commanders on both sides may be relieved from duty by the computer for reasons such as incompetence and treason. If the leader is not executed, he will be returned to the leader pool after a delay, and may be assigned to another command.
The replacement level of a divisions parent HQ will determine when it will receive troops and equipment. The default setting is 50%, which means that when a division reaches less than half of its maximum compliment it will receive replacements until it reaches the 50% level again. To view or change the replacement level place the cursor over the HQ unit and select Set Replace Level. Follow the instruction displayed on the screen to raise or lower the level.
Finding Parent HQ
To find out which HQ a corps is assigned to, place the cursor over the unit and select Find HQ. This will highlight the parent HQ and all corps under its control. This command will also find the parent HQ of another HQ.
You may change which HQ a unit is subordinate to with the Set HQ command. To change the parent HQ, place the cursor over a Corps, select the Set HQ command and then select the new parent HQ.
Adding and Removing Units
New combat corps and HQs may be built on empty hexes. New corps are empty and you may transfer divisions and/or aircraft (HQs only) to them. New HQs will automatically have a commander assigned to them.
To build a new corp, place the cursor over an empty hex and select New Corps, then select whether to build a mechanized or non-mechanized corps. You must then transfer divisions into the new corps or it will disappear during Combat Resolution. Any division may be assigned to either type of corps. The type of the corps will determine the plot movement base for the unit. Since non-mechanized divisions lose readiness at twice the rate of mechanized units for each plotted move, it is unwise to assign them to mechanized corps.
To build a new HQ, place the cursor over an empty hex and select New HQ. The new HQ will automatically be assigned a commander from the pool. There is a limit of 25 HQs that may be in operation at one time, and so you may not always be able to create new ones.
To remove an empty corps, place the cursor over the unit and select Remove Unit. This is handy when you consolidate divisions into stronger corps.
To examine corps or HQs, place the cursor over the unit and select the Get command. Once you are examining the unit, you may view aircraft, divisions and subdivisions by entering the unit letter.
The following symbols are used to represent HQs and the two corps types:
Headquarters: Rectangle with an "H" inside
Armored or Mechanized: Rectangle with an ellipse inside
Infantry or Non-mechanized: Rectangle with an "X" inside
When you examine any HQ, corps or division the top of the screen will display which unit it is attached to. Displayed HQs will indicate subordinate corps with (C). When examining a corps the units assigned to it will be displayed like this:
A 122nd Infantry Div (333)
B 153rd Stug Bn
C 121st Motorized Div (576)
The numbers in parentheses next to infantry and motorized infantry units are the total number of squads, guns and vehicles in that division.
When you examine combat divisions you will see their current experience and readiness level, number of squads and numbers and types of equipment. Readiness is the percentage of troops that are currently available for combat. Experience represents how battle hardened the troops are. Units that have taken heavy losses, and have received many replacements, will suffer a decrease in experience. Motorized infantry divisions will also have additional mechanized units attached to them.
Changing Mechanized Unit Types
When examining mechanized divisions you will also be able to change the type of units in that division. To change the type of a division you must have enough of the new vehicle in the replacement pool to swap out all of the old equipment. This allows divisions to be upgraded during the campaign. The computer will automatically upgrade the type of units in the Replacements phase when there are sufficient numbers of new equipment.
To quickly view all of your units, use the Next Unit command. This will cycle through all of your HQs and Corps.
Examine USAAF (Soviet only)
Starting in 1943, the Soviet player will have support from the 8th and 12th US Army Air Corps. These corps are always under computer control and may not be transferred to or from. The Examine USAAF will allow the Soviet player to view those assets during General Orders.
Cities and Production
Cities house the factories and oil refineries that keep the war effort moving. Cities also protect troops from the adverse effects of weather and offer fortification to repulse enemy attack. As enemy cities are captured, manufacturing and oil production facilities are added to the victor's existing war machine.
During General Orders you may examine cities, factories, and other resources. You may also alter pro-
duction to change the types of equipment manufactured. For more information on these items look in the Production and Resources section following Combat Resolution.
During the General Orders phase each side may order air operations from HQs with aircraft assigned to them. The types of operations available are: Air Lift, Airfield Attack, Interdiction and Strategic Bombing. To order an air operation move the cursor over an HQ with aircraft and select the mission type command. To target an operation, move the cursor to the target and select the hex.
Whenever aircraft fly a mission they are subject to attack by all enemy airgroups they pass and any flak guns at the target sight. Sometimes air operations may not be scrubbed because of heavy losses to enemy fighters or adverse weather conditions.
The total number of aircraft that will actually fly a given mission is based on the unit readiness, the range to the target and the range rating of the aircraft involved. Fighter aircraft will fly unlimited missions in escort capacity, but all other aircraft will only fly 1 mission per turn. Fighters will only fly missions if they have other types of planes to escort.
In the case of larger airgroups you may be able to fly multiple missions per turn, with the planes that missed the first mission flying in the second. Missions subsequent to the first will tend to be fairly small.
Fighter aircraft will, in most cases, have shorter range than the planes they escort. It is very easy to overfly your escort support and risk getting mauled by enemy fighters at the target sight. Be careful to examine the ranges of your aircraft and try to move air units close enough to the front to maximize escort coverage. When an air mission takes too many losses, the operation is automatically scrubbed.
Airlift operations may be mounted to raise the effective SL of troops in low supply or to get supply to units that have overrun their supply lines or had them cut.
The success of an air lift is determined by the number of pounds of supplies that are parachuted to the corps. Every 100 lbs of materials delivered is 1 supply point. The number of supply points required to raise a corps' readiness is determined by the size of the corps.
For Example: If the corps size is 1000, then 1000 supply points (100,000 lbs) will raise readiness 1%, 2000 supply points (200,000 lbs) will raise readiness 2% and so on.
If the delivered supply points is less than the corps size, then there is a chance that readiness will be raised 1%.
To determine the size of a corps add the number of infantry squads, artillery and flak guns to 3 times the number of tanks.
Corps Size = Squads + Artillery + Flak + (3*Tanks)
Only transport and level-bomber type aircraft will airlift supplies.
Airfield Attack Airfield attacks are aimed at destroying enemy aircraft while still on the ground. These attacks are critical in the effort to achieve and maintain air superiority.
The following types of aircraft can perform airfield attacks: fighters, fighter-bombers, dive-bombers and level-bombers.
Interdiction missions are attacks on enemy combat corps. These missions help lower the readiness of enemy corps that are to be attacked by ground troops during Combat Resolution.
The following types of aircraft participate in interdiction missions: fighters, fighter-bombers, divebombers, tank-killers and level bombers.
Strategic bombing missions are targeted at damaging enemy industrial facilities. Successful bombing raids will disrupt production capabilities until they are repaired.
Only level-bomber type aircraft will perform strategic bombing operations.
After General Orders, plotted moves and battles are performed during the Combat Resolution phase. Combat Resolution is divided into 5 segments, or pulses. All plots and combat occurring in a pulse are resolved for all units before moving to the next pulse. Readiness and unit losses for movement and combat are calculated each pulse.
Combat occurs as part of any pulse that attempts to plot into an enemy occupied hex.
For example: a mechanized corps with SL of 1 or greater may move and attack 5 times during 1 Combat Resolution phase.
Units are charged movement costs after they have entered a hex. If a unit attacks an adjacent hex but does not displace the enemy corps, he will not be charged movement costs.
The outcome of a battle is based on many factors. The following is a summary of the rules and factors governing combat.
Combat Value (CV)
As you move the cursor around the map during General Orders you will notice a Combat Value (CV) displayed for all units. For HQs there are 2 numbers, the first is CV and the second is the number of air groups assigned to that HQ. The CV for a unit is based on its effective fighting force including current readiness. When viewing the CV of enemy units your intelligence may not be exact (it varies up to about + or - 25%), but the CV for friendly units is correct.
By comparing the CV for 2 units you can estimate the combat odds that will occur in a battle. The effective CV for a unit will drop due to a decrease in readiness during Combat Resolution if it has to plot through empty hexes to reach a target.
Fortification and Terrain
Defending units have a fortification value based on their entrenchment level and terrain type. Every turn corps do not move they will automatically increase their entrenchment level by 1, up to a level of 2. After units have entrenchment level 2 there is a chance every turn of entrenching another level up to 5. Additional entrenchment can occur only during clear and snow weather conditions, and is affected by SL. Units in cities can entrench under any weather conditions.
The total fort level is the entrenchment level plus terrain modifiers. Woods, swamps and minor cites will add 1 to the fort level, while mountains and major cities add 3.
Total losses incurred by a unit with fortification are divided by the fort level (1-8). Total Losses = Calculated LosseslFort Level
Attacking across a river will cut damage inflicted by tanks to 1/3 and halve infantry damage.
Overrun and Static Attacks
Unless a static attack was ordered, successful attackers will always advance into a vacated hex. The defender will vacate a hex if forced to retreat or if the defending corps is shattered or surrenders.
When corps engage in combat, the computer actually computes the combat for the individual divisions engaged. The number of actions in
Page 21-22 Second Front Map (SF-MAP1.GIF)
a given battle is determined by the computer based on the number of divisions involved. The sequence of events for each action of the battle is:
2) AT Fire
3) Combat Fire
At each stage of the sequence losses are determined and combat strengths are reduced before the next. After combat has occurred, unit readiness is updated and odds are calculated to determine the combat result. The formulas used for Combat Resolution are located in the Campaign Summary & Technical Data section beginning on page 40.
Combat Air Support
The computer may reinforce ground troops with air support. Aircraft may fly an unlimited number of air support missions; the number of planes flying from a group is determined by range. Air support is calculated into combat with artillery during Bombard/Artillery, the exception is that tankkiller type aircraft count as AT fire. Combat air support missions will be scrubbed if they suffer high losses from enemy fighters. Combat air support is always under computer control and is not affected by commander rating.
During Combat Resolution you will see odds displayed for engagements. The odds display will be a single number representing the attacker strength relative to the defender at the end of the battle.
For example: ODDS: 2 indicates the attacker has a 2:1 advantage, ODDS: 1 indicates even forces and ODDS: 0 indicates that the attacker is at a disadvantage. Unfavorable odds for the attacker will never be displayed as less than 0.
Odds are calculated differently for the attacker and defender with the following formulas: Attacker Value (AV) = (4*tanks) + (2*recon vehicles) + (number of squads and artillery)
Defender Value (DV9 = (2*tanks) + (number of squads and AT guns)
The results of the battle are determined by the AV:DV odds and sometimes the commander rating of the defender's parent HQ.
Combat may have one of four results depending on the final odds: the attacker may bounce off the defending forces, the defender may retreat, the defender may be shattered or the defender may surrender.
When units bounce neither side gives ground, and the attacking units will end all plotted moves at that pulse.
When a defender retreats, the attacker will automatically advance into the vacated hex as part of the combat pulse. If the attacker's next pulse moves him into contact with the enemy, combat will occur again.
The entrenchment level of defending units and the final combat odds will determine whether or not units will retreat. The higher the entrenchment, the greater the odds required to push the unit out of the hex.
Northern Retreat Rules
Due to rough terrain, units located from Leningrad and north are considered to have an entrenchment level of 5 for retreat calculations. Entrenchment level rules act normally for combat calculations.
When a retreating unit is reduced to a DV of 50 or less there is a chance that the corps will be shattered, or destroyed as a fighting force. The commander level of the retreating unit's HQ will strongly affect whether or not a corps shatters. Strong leaders will tend to hold the corps together to a much larger extent.
Units will automatically shatter, regardless of their DV, if they are forced to retreat from a hex with SL of 1 or greater into a SL 0 hex.
When a corps is shattered it is removed from the game and all remaining readiness is returned to the supreme HQ to serve as reinforcements. Non-ready troops are lost.
For example: If a division has a total of 230 squads and readiness of 2l% when it is shattered, then 48 squads will be sent to the replacement pool and the remaining 182 are killed.
Corps will surrender if they are forced to retreat from a SL 0 hex to another SL 0 hex. When units surrender all men and equipment are lost.
At the end of Combat Resolution all losses for that turn will be displayed.
Some portion of tanks that are 'destroyed' in an engagement are in fact only damaged. These vehicles are repaired and then later placed into the Replacement Pool for redisbursement.
Combat Display & Delay Levels
The computer handles each battle as a series of division level engagements. You may elect to view only the overall results, or see the losses for each part of the battle.
During combat you may change the display level and delay for combat results. The level ranges from 0 to 3, with each higher level giving you more detailed information. At the lowest level you will be shown only combat odds and results. At the highest level the display will include combat results for individual division level engagements.
To find out how to change these levels on your system, read the machine-specific instructions at the start of this manual (IBM and compatible users) or the Data Card that came with your game.
PRODUCTION AND RESOURCES
Your cities, factories and natural resources are of critical importance to your war effort. Historically, part of Hider's motivation for starting the Eastern Campaign was to secure for Germany the rich lands and resources of the Soviet Union. As armies overrun cities with factories or other assets, these resources are added to the victor's war machine. Cities also offer fortified defensive positions and protect troops from the ravages of the long Soviet winters.
Cities with manufacturing facilities will also have a Heavy Industry number. This represents the size of the factories located there. The number of items produced each week at a facility will be a factor of the Heavy Industry number and the production cost of the manufactured item.
The total Heavy Industry number for all factories is a factor in the growth of individual facilities. Each location has a chance of increasing in size until it reaches a 20 value. This is checked each turn, and small plants are more likely to grow than large ones.
Oil supplies the fuel and lubricants needed to keep an army moving, and may lower the readiness of your combat troops if it drops below 100.
Resources are used in your factories to produce war materials. If
resources drop below 100, production will drop proportionally.
For example. If resources drop to 85, then all production levels will drop to 85% of maximum. If resources drop to 72 then production goes to 72% of maximum.
To examine cities, place the cursor over the city hex and select Examine City. This will show what oil and manufacturing facilities exist in that city. Manufacturing facilities are indicated by the name of the equipment they are currently producing and a number of units produced each week. Sometimes the production number will be marked with an '*'. This indicates that the piece of equipment is not yet in production and that the factory is currently tooling up for it or that the factory has been damaged by strategic bombing.
Examining Off Map Areas (Soviet Only)
The Examine Off Map Areas command will allow the Soviet player to view the city of Murmansk and facilities in the Urals. Murmansk is the center for the Lend Lease equipment received from the Allies. Production cannot be altered for Lend Lease equipment.
To change production, examine a city with factory facilities, then select the letter of the item to be changed. A menu will appear indicating the equipment which that factory can produce. When you change the new equipment to be produced there is a down time for that facility as it retools for the new item. You may not change the basic type of factories. For example you cannot produce tanks in an airplane factory.
The Axis player cannot change the type of equipment produced in Italian cities.
You may only produce equipment after the date it was historically available, but you may begin to gear up for production before, and be in full production when the item does become available. There is a summary of all available equipment, including the dates they may enter the game, in the Campaign Summary & Technical Data section on pages 37-38. The exception to this rule is the allocation of factories to research and development. If you assign factories to build equipment that is not yet available
according to the historical timelines, then there is a small chance that the availability date will be pushed up 1 week at a time. This check is made every turn.
The extremely large Axis Elefant tank was produced in limited quantities during the war and may not be selected for production. There is a small number of facilities that will produce this vehicle starting in 1943, and if you retool them no more Elefants may be built.
Moving Factories (Soviet Only)
The Soviet player has the option of relocating factories off of the map to the Urals. This option is only available if the player has 3000 or more points of rail. To move factories, access them just as you would to change production and then answer "Yes" to the move option.
The effect of moving a factory is that production is reduced to 1 and there is a 3 month delay before the factory resumes production. Moving factories can be very costly in terms of lost production, but it is less costly than losing the facilities to advancing enemy troops.
Examining the Replacement Pool
To examine the replacement pool select Examine Replacement Pool. This shows the entire pool of men and equipment available to replace combat losses. This command will display Armored Fighting Vehicles, then Aircraft, and finally Squads and Guns (artillery, anti-tank, and flak). Each display will indicate all possible items for that category, even if they are not yet available for production. To examine production facilities for any type of equipment, select the letter of the item you are interested in and all factories producing that type of equipment will be displayed.
Examine Heavy Industry
You may examine the values for all of your heavy industrial complexes by selecting the Examine Heavy Industry command while on the Replacement Pool screen.
You may examine Oil/Resources from the Replacement Pool screen by selecting the Examine Oil/Resources command. The resources will be displayed for all of your cities.
CAMPAIGN SUMMARY 1941:
Map: German Critical Area Overview (SF-MAP2.GIF)
June 22,1941: Germans launch Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. This is the start date for the 1941 Campaign Scenario.
July 16,1941: German Army Group Center captures Smolensk. Axis troops are only 300 miles from Moscow.
Map: June 22, 1941 - Operation Barbarossa (SF-MAP3.GIF)
September 1941: Germans clear Kiev pocket, capture over 600,000 Soviets. This is the start of the Moscow Scenario.
October 1, 1941: Germans launch offensive to take Moscow.
November 19, 1941: Final German drive to Moscow is launched.
December 6, 1941: German offensive collapses.
December 8, 1941: Soviets counter-attack before Moscow. German Army reels under the assault and begins to rout.
December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
Map: September 21, 1941 - German Drive to Moscow (SF-MAP4.GIF)
December 1941 - April 1942: Soviet Winter Offensive. Some ground is gained in the north, and Rostov is captured in the south, but the Germans recover from their initial shock and generally hold when they are told to.
June 21, 1942: Tobruk is captured by Rommel's Afrika Korps.
June 28, 1942: German Summer Offensive is launched in Russia. The oil fields in the Caucasus mountains and Stalingrad are its objectives.
August 19, 1942: German 6th Army is ordered to capture Stalingrad.
September 16, 1942: Germans reach suburbs of Stalingrad.
October 23, 1942: Battle of El Alamein opens in Africa.
November 4, 1942: Rommel forced to retreat from El Alamein.
November 8, 1942: Operation Torch is executed. Allies land in Northwest Africa at Oran, Algiers and Casablanca.
November 19, 1942. Soviets launch counter- offensive at Stalingrad, hitting the flanks of the German 6th Army.
Map: June 28, 1942 - Case Blue (SF-MAP5.GIF)
November 23, 1942: German 6th Army is completely surrounded.
January 26, 1943: Soviets capture Voronezh, taking 52,000 Germans prisoner.
January 27, 1943: First American air attack on Germany in daylight hits Wilhelmshaven.
February 2, 1943: Last Germans surrender at Stalingrad. Germans lose: 110,000 dead, 50,000 wounded, 107,000 captured. Soviet losses estimated at about 1 million.
February 8, 1943: Soviets recapture Kursk.
February 19, 1943: Germans inflict humiliating defeat on Americans at Kasserine Pass in North Africa.
May 12, 1943: General Von Arnim surrenders the Afrika Korps, and its Italian allies, to British and American troops at Tunis. The Battle for North Africa is over. 291,000 Axis soldiers are captured.
July 5, 1943: Battle for Kursk commences. Known as the largest tank battle until the 6 Day War in 1967. German assault is stopped cold by mines, prepared defensive positions, and armored counter-attacks.
July 10, 1943: Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily, is launched.
July 25, 1943: Mussolini resigns and is arrested. Marshall Badoglio forms new government.
September 9, 1943: Allies invade Italy at Salerno.
September 29, 1943: Italians sign Armistice with Allies.
October 1, 1943: Allies take Naples.
October 13, 1943: Italy declares war on Germany.
November 6, 1943: Soviets take Kiev.
December 3, 1943: Soviet Winter Offensive commences.
January 6, 1944: Soviets drive into Poland.
January 15, 1944: Germans in Italy withdraw to the Gustav Line, which is anchored on Monte Cassino.
January 22, 1944: Allies land at Anzio, Italy.
March 6,1944: Soviets launch offensive in the Ukraine.
April 2, 1944: Soviets invade Rumania.
May 9, 1944: Sevastapol falls to Red Army.
May 16, 1944: Allies break the Gustav line. The road to Rome is finally opened.
June 4, 1944: Rome falls to U.S. 5th Army.
June 6, 1944: Allies land at Normandy beaches in western France.
July 3, 1944: Soviets recapture Minsk.
July 27, 1944: British and American forces break out of Normandy beachhead.
August 4, 1944: 8th Army reaches Florence.
August 17, 1944: Soviets cross East Prussian frontier.
August 25, 1944: French armored units liberate Paris.
September 17, 1944: Operation Market Garden, Montgomery's plan to force a bridgehead into the Ruhr Valley with use of paratroops, is launched.
September 21, 1944: Market Garden ends in an Allied defeat.
October 23, 1944: Soviets attack into East Prussia.
December 16, 1944: Hitler stages a last-ditch offensive on the Western Front designed to split the British and American armies by recapturing Antwerp. Known as the Battle of the Bulge, it sorely pressed the American units who received the attack. Due to lack of reserves, fuel and air support, the attack eventually bogged down, and by December 22, the Germans reverted to the defensive.
1945: January 17,1945: Warsaw is liberated by the Red Army.
March 7, 1945: The bridge at Remagen is stormed successfully by American troops, giving the Allies a foothold across the Rhine river.
April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies.
April 13, 1945: Vienna falls to Soviet troops.
April 25, 1945: Soviets and Americans meet at Elbe River. U.S. 5th Army launches offensive in the Po Valley.
April 28, 1945: Mussolini killed by Italian communist partisans.
April 30, 1945: Hitler commits suicide in Berlin.
May 2, 1945: Berlin falls to Marshall Zhukov.
May 7-8: Germany surrenders unconditionally to Allies. The war in Europe draws to a close.
Weather, Terrain and Movement Tables
Weather Supply Level Effects
CONDITION EFFECTIVE SL
Snow (Axis) 33%
Snow (Soviet) 50%
Blizzard (Soviet) 50%
Blizzard (Axis) 12%
The SL of city hexes are not effected by weather other than blizzard conditions.
Additional Readiness Lost During Plotting
TERRAIN TYPE UNITS UNITS
Clear 10% 20%
Mountain 20% 40%
Swamp* 20% 40%
River 10% 20%
*Swamp can only be moved through during Clear and Rain conditions.
Additional Plotting Readiness Loss for Weather
WEATHER ALL UNITS
Readiness Lost During Moving
TERRAIN TYPE UNITS UNITS
All 5% 10%
Additional Readiness Loss for Weather
WEATHER ALL UNITS
(Axis before June 42) 25%
Readiness Lost During Rail Movement
WEATHER ALL UNITS
ALL 1 %
NAME OIL RESOURCES XPOS YPOS
ESSEN 20 15 2 31
COLOGNE 0 10 1 32
WUPPERTAL 0 5 3 32
FRANKFURT 0 5 4 35
MANNHEIM 0 5 5 37
STUTTGART 0 5 4 39
KARLSRUHE 0 5 2 39
MUNICH 0 5 9 42
TURIN 0 0 3 49
GENOA 0 0 5 51
MILAN 0 0 7 49
FLORENCE 0 0 8 53
VENICE 0 0 12 49
TRIESTE 0 0 15 48
ROME 0 5 11 58
MAPLES 0 0 13 60
TARANTO 0 0 16 62
LUBECK 0 0 7 22
HAMBURG 20 0 4 25
BREMEN 0 0 2 3
HANNOVER 5 0 4 29
MAGDEBURG 0 0 7 30
STETTIN 0 0 13 22
NAME OIL RESOURCES XPOS YPOS
BERLIN 0 25 12 28
LEIPZIG 0 0 10 31
DRESDEN 0 0 13 31
PRAGUE 0 5 13 34
NURNBERG 0 0 9 37
VIENNA 5 5 18 40
BUDAPEST 0 0 21 42
BRESLAU 0 0 18 33
LODZ 0 0 21 29
KRAKOW 5 0 23 33
WARSAW 0 0 24 28
DANZIG 0 0 20 22
KONIGSBERG 0 0 23 21
BELGRADE 0 5 23 50
SOFIA 0 0 28 56
BUCHAREST 15 5 33 50
CONSTANTA 0 0 37 49
HELSINKI 0 5 33 4
TILSIT 0 0 25 19
RIGA 0 5 29 15
KAUNAS 0 0 30 20
VILNA 0 0 32 22
DAUGAVPILS 0 0 34 20
TALLINN 0 0 30 9
LENINGRAD 5 10 40 7
NOVGOROD 0 0 42 11
PSKOV 0 0 37 13
GRODNO 0 0 30 26
BREST-LITOVSK 0 0 30 29
MINSK 0 0 35 25
LVOV 0 0 30 36
TARNOPOL 0 0 34 36
ODESSA 0 5 40 44
UMAN 0 0 40 40
KIEV 0 5 42 34
DNEPROPETROVSK 0 5 48 39
SEVASTAPOL 0 0 46 50
MOGILEV 0 0 41 25
NAME OIL RESOURCES XPOS YPOS
GOMEL 0 0 44 29
VITEBSK 0 0 42 22
VELIKIYE LUKI 0 0 43 18
SMOLENSK 0 0 45 23
RZHEV 0 0 48 17
KALININ 0 0 51 14
VOLOGDA 0 0 55 9
MOSCOW 5 20 53 18
TULA 0 0 52 24
GORKI 0 5 61 18
KAZAN 0 0 69 18
SARATOV 5 5 65 30
VORONEZH 0 0 55 30
BRYANSK 0 0 48 26
KURSK 0 0 50 31
KHARKOV 0 5 50 35
STALINO 0 5 53 40
ROSTOV 0 10 56 41
STALINGRAD 0 5 65 37
ASTRAKAHN 0 5 69 46
NOVOROSSIYSK 0 0 53 50
MAIKOP 15 a 57 50
GROZNYY 15 0 67 54
BATUMI 5 0 58 58
TBILISI 15 0 61 58
BAKU 40 0 70 61
VYAZMA 0 0 48 21
ZHITOMIR 0 0 39 34
DEMYANSK 0 0 45 14
ZAPOROZHE 0 0 49 41
OREL 0 0 50 27
PLOESTI 40 0 33 48
MURMANSK 5 0 OFF MAP
URALS 20 50 OFF MAP
KASSEL 0 0 5 33
BREMERHAVEN 0 0 2 23
TIKHVIN 0 0 45 7
F = Fighter
FB = Fighter Bomber
DB = Dive Bomber
LB = Light Bomber
TD = Tank Destroyer
T = Transport
NAME TYPE DOGFT CAN LOAD RANGE DURAB COST AVAILABLE
Bf-109E F 20 7 5 10 20 3 6/21/1941
Bf-109F F 22 5 2 11 20 3 6/21/1941
Bf-109G F 21 6 2 13 24 3 5/20/1943
Fw-190A F 22 14 11 12 26 4 12/13/1941
Fw-190D F 25 6 2 13 30 4 11/11/1943
Fw-19OF FB 16 18 11 13 36 5 10/7/1943
Bl-110C FB 10 8 11 18 28 4 6/21/1941
Bl-110E FB 8 12 22 20 32 5 6/28/1941
Me-262A FB 30 20 22 15 20 9 7/13/1944
Ju-87 Stuka DB 3 2 22 24 20 4 6/21/1941
Ju-87 Pzjag TD 3 12 11 24 20 5 5/20/1943
Hs-129 TD 3 12 5 11 44 6 7/29/1943
He-111H LB 1 3 44 30 34 6 6/21/1941
Do-17Z LB 1 3 22 18 30 5 6/21/1941
Ju-88A LB 2 2 44 28 40 6 6/21/1941
Me-410A FB 10 8 22 20 30 6 11/11/1943
He-177 LB 1 10 66 19 48 8 3/27/1942
G-50 F 19 2 2 10 20 2 6/21/1941
Macchi C.20 F 21 4 2 12 24 3 8/30/1941
Fokker FB 18 2 8 15 20 3 6/21/1941
S.M.79 LB 1 4 26 30 33 6 6/21/1941
S.M.81 LB 1 2 22 27 33 5 6/21/1941
B.R.20 LB 1 3 35 45 28 6 6/21/1941
Ju-52 T 1 0 50 21 24 4 6/21/1941
NAME TYPE DOGFT CAN LOAD RANGE DURAB COST AVAILABLE
I-16 F 12 8 5 12 10 2 6/21/1941
MiG-11 F 16 4 4 9 20 3 6/21/1941
MiG-3 F 17 4 44 12 24 3 6/21/1941
LaGG-3 F 19 5 4 10 25 3 6/21/1941
Yak-1 F 21 4 3 11 24 3 7/5/1941
Yak-3 F 22 5 3 14 26 3 5/20/1943
Yak-9 FB 21 5 8 20 27 4 11/27/1942
La-5 F 20 6 2 10 26 3 6/5/1942
La-7 F 23 9 2 10 27 3 6/24/1943
SU-2 DB 3 4 13 18 20 4 6/21/1941
Sturmovik DB 4 10 13 9 45 5 6/21/1941
SB-2 LB 2 2 13 18 24 5 6/21/1941
IL-4 LB 1 3 44 60 33 7 6/21/1941
Pe-2 DB 2 3 22 23 30 6 6/21/1941
Tu-2 DB 1 6 50 37 40 8 8/14/1942
Hurricane FB 20 12 4 13 24 4 7/19/1941
Spitfire F 23 8 2 12 22 4 11/27/1942
P-0 FB 19 6 4 20 25 4 1/16/1942
P-39 FB 18 8 5 20 22 4 3/27/1942
P-63 FB 20 8 15 11 22 4 12/16/1943
P-47 FB 22 8 20 11 33 4 5/20/1943
B-25 DB 2 8 30 32 38 6 1/16/1942
A-20 DB 3 12 26 28 34 6 5/20/1943
TB-3 LB 1 4 60 32 30 7 6/21/1941
I-15 F 8 4 2 11 10 2 6/21/1941
P-38 F 19 7 20 40 34 4 8/14/1942
P-51 F 24 6 10 35 26 4 11/11/1943
P-47 F 22 8 20 20 33 4 8/14/1942
B-24 LB 1 14 65 99 50 7 8/14/1942
B-17 LB 1 16 70 99 60 7 8/14/1942
NAME ATTACK DEFENSE COST AVAILABLE
PZ-11 5 4 2 6/21/1941
R-35 5 7 * 6/21/1941
Czech 381 6 4 3 6/21/1941
Czech 38X E) 6 5 3 1/9/1942
PZ-1111 6 5 * 6/21/1941
Pz-lllg 9 5 3 6/21/1941
PZ-1llh 9 7 3 6/21/1941
Pz-Illi 11 7 4 1/9/1942
Pz-l:lm 11 8 3 1/7/1943
Pz-IVd 7 4 * 6/21/1941
Pz-[Ve 7 6 4 6/21/1941
Pz-Ivg 14 7 5 5/8/1942
Pz-Ivh 15 7 5 8/7/1942
Pz-1vi 15 8 6 7/6/1944
Panther 21 14 8 2/1/1943
M-13/40 5 5 3 6/21/1941
M-15/42 8 6 3 1/7/1943
Tiger 18 16 7 11/6/1942
King Tiger 24 21 9 6/1/1944
Stug-1111; 6 7 3 6/21/1941
Slug-lllg 14 9 5 6/5/1942
Eletant 22 22 9 1/7/1943
JpZ-I 8 2 2 6/21/1941
Marder 11 14 3 4 1/9/1942
Marderill 13 4 4 5/8/1942
Nashorn 22 4 8 7/8/1943
Hetzer 14 10 6 8/3/1944
JpZ-Iv 19 11 6 3/2/1944
Jagdpanther 22 16 8 6/1/1944
Jagillitler 26 24 9 12/7/1944
* These Units cannot be selected for production during the game.
NAME ATTACK DEFENSE COST AVAILABLE
T-37 1 2 99 6/21/1941
T-60 4 8 2 6/21/1941
T-70 6 6 3 1/9/1942
T-26 6 4 3 6/21/1941
BT-5 6 3 * 6/21/1941
BT-7 6 5 3 6/21/1941
T-28 7 9 * 6/21/1941
T-34/76A 9 10 5 6/21/1941
T-34/76C 12 11 6 9/11/1942
T-34/85 16 12 6 11/11/1943
Sherman 11 8 6 1/5/1944
T-35 8 7 * 6/21/1941
KV-1 9 15 5 6/21/1941
KV-1E 12 15 5 7/12/1941
KV-11 10 10 8 6/21/1941
KW-1S 12 18 6 11/6/1942
KV-85 16 15 8 10/17/1943
JS-I 16 17 8 3/2/1944
JS-II 21 18 8 6/1/1944
JS-III 21 24 8 1/3/1945
SU-76 10 3 4 2/4/1943
SU-122 11 14 6 214/1943
SU-152 13 15 7 7/8/1943
JSU-122 19 16 7 3/2/1944
JSU-152 13 17 7 3/2/1944
SU-85 14 13 6 9/9/1943
SU-100 20 14 7 11/2/1944
Valentine 9 8 4 6/21/1941
Grant 10 6 5 1/7/1943
NAME ATTACK DEFENSE COST AVAILABLE
Artillery 1 1 1 6/21/1941
AT-Gun 1 1 1 6/21/1941
Hak 1 1 1 6/21/1941
Recon 1 1 2 6/21/1941
NAME RATING NAME RATING NAME RATING
Hitler 3 Weichs 4 Dumitrescu 4
Brauchitsch 7 Manstein 9 Schmidt 5
Leeb 6 Paulus 5 Heinrici 7
Bock 5 Model 8 Reinhardt 6
Rundstedt 7 Schobert 6 Lindemann 6
Mannerheim 7 Rommel 8 Harpe 5
Busch 4 Student 5 Schomer 5
Kuchler 4 Hausser 5 Wohler 6
Hoepner 6 Kesselring 9 Blaskowitz 5
Guderian 8 Hollidt 6 Himmler 3
Kluge 6 Raus 6 Luttwitz 6
Strauss 5 Hube 5 Busse 5
Hoth 7 Dietrich 4 Balck 7
Kleist 6 Mackensen 6 List 6
Stulpnagel 6 Garibaldi 4 Zeitzler 7
Reichenau 7 Ruoff 5 Witzleben 5
Constantinescu 4 Jany 5
NAME RATING NAME RATING NAME RATING
Stalin 4 Kurochkin 5 Gerasimenko 4
Timoshenko 7 Konev 8 Starinov 3
Zhukov 9 Golikov 4 Shtemenko 4
Popov 3 Malinovskii 5 Shaposhnikov 5
Kuznetsov 5 Petrov 4 Rokossovskii 7
Pavlov 4 Antonov 4 Kulik 3
Kirponos 6 Voronov 4 Chuikov 6
Tyulenev 4 Eremenko 7 Batov 5
Bogdanov 5 Vasilevskii 5 Boldin 4
Smirnov 3 Govorov 4 Kazakov 4
Kozlov 3 Bagramyan 6 Rodimisev 4
Kalinin 3 Tolbukhin 5 Zhdanoy 4
Cherevichenko 4 Maslennikov 5 Mekhlis 3
Voroshilov 4 Chernyakhovski 7 Vatutin 7
Budenny 3 Zakharov 5 Rotmistrav 6
Artern'ei 4 Belov 4 Leliushenko 5
Meretskov 6 Grechko 5
Allied Strength = (Year-1941) * 1500 [+ 1000 if weather is clear] [+500 if Random > Axis Commander Rating]
Axis Strength = 3 per tank + 1 per squad, recon vehicle, and aircraft + 1/5 per artillery and flak assigned to Western Front
After the Allies have landed in France, the Axis may add 1/4 of the OKW strength when checking Western Front event checks.
Starting 1944 Axis strength in west is randomized for event checks.
If Axis Elite SS is less than (Year - 1940) then Axis strength is halved (including OKW).
Allied Strength = (Year-1941) * 500 [+500 if weather is clear] [+500 if Random > Axis Commander Rating]
Axis Strength = 3 per tank + 1 per squad, recon vehicle, and aircraft + 1/5 per artillery and flak assigned to Western Front
After Allies have landed in Italy, Axis may add 1/4 of the OKW strength for Italian Front event checks.
Starting 1943 Axis strength in Italian Front is randomized for event checks made before the Allies have landed in Italy.
If the number of Panzer Divisions is less than (Year - 1940) then Axis strength is halved (Elite SS counts as 2 Panzer divisions).
Available Division Strengths:
Infantry or Artillery Strength = Total Troops * (Experience/100) * (Readiness/100)
Infantry Strength is halved when attacking across a river.
Tank Strength (while attacking) = (4 Total Troops) * (Experience/100) * (Readiness/100)
Tank strength is reduced to 1/3 when attacking across a river.
Tank Strength (while defending) (2*Total Troops) * (Experience/100) * (Readiness/100)
Bombs = Load in LBS * Experience * (Number flying/500)
AT Bombs = (Load in LBS/10) * Experience * (number Flying/500)
Bomb Strength = Bombs + AT Bombs
Bombard losses are taken from enemy infantry, artillery, AT guns and flak only.
Bombard Losses = (Artillery Strength + Bomb Strength * (Random)) /Fort Level
AT Fire (Anti-Tank):
AT losses are taken only from enemy tanks. Average AT is the average combat value of all engaged AT guns.
AT Losses = (((Average AT * Total AT/Target Defense) + Total Flak + AT Bombs * (Random)) /Fort Level) /Target Defense
Combat firing losses are taken from enemy infantry and AT guns.
Attacker Inflicted Losses = (Infantry Strength + Tank Strength (Random)) /Fort Level
Defender Inflicted Losses Infantry Strength + Tank Strength (Random)
IBM COMMAND SUMMARY CHART
Q Quit General Orders
G Get Unit
N Next Unit
C Examine City
Alt/C Examine Off Map Area (Soviet Only)
Alt/P Examine Replacement Pool
Alt/H Examine Heavy Industry (From Replacement Pool Screen)
Alt/A Examine Artillery Factories (From Replacement Pool Screen)
Alt/O Examine Oil/Resources (From Replacement Pool Screen)
Alt/U View USAAF Air Groups (Soviet Only)
H Find Parent HQ
F1 Toggle Strategic /Tactical Map
F9 View Enemy Controlled Hexes
F10 Examine Rail
F5 Add New Corps (On Empty Hex Only)
F6 Add New HQ (On Empty Hex Only)
R Remove Empty Corps
P Plot Mode (Combat Unit Only)
P Set Replacement Level (HQ Only)
Alt/V March Mode
Alt/V, R Rail Mode
Alt/T Transfer Mode
MUM Map Mode
Alt/F Airfield Attack (HQ Only)
Alt/L Airlift (HQ Only)
Alt/I Interdiction (HQ Only)
Alt/S Strategic Bombing
Alt/O Victory Objectives
Alt/Q Exit to DOS
/ Help Key
cursor and plot control keys
7 NNW 9 NNE
4 W 6 E
1 SSW 3 SSE
large increment cursor control keys
PLAYER TIPS & HINTS
The following tips and suggestions were gleaned from SSI playtesters and should help you get started with the game.
Check the readiness of your divisions regularly. If readiness is low (20 or less), move the division to a safe area. Remember that divisions recover readiness faster when attached to HQs.
Make sure that combat troops are within the control area of their parent HQ.
Don't get surrounded. Maintain your supply lines - especially during bad weather.
Defend cities vigorously, but retreat before you can become surrouned.
Try to surround cities and clusters of enemy troops to cut supply. Move airgroups near surrounded cities to interdict airlift operations. Fighters will automatically engage enemy air operations if they are in range.
Use your mechanized units to attack enemy HQs with airgroups. It is best to destroy enemy aircraft on the ground whenever possible.
Concentrate high CV value units in tough areas to break through enemy lines.
Concentrate good leaders in important areas of the lines to bolster combat effectiveness.
Change your factories to produce the best possible tanks and aircraft as they become available.
Transferring units into Corps with plots already designated will erase all plots. Designate all your plots, and then do transfers and strategic movement. Likewise, perform all air operations before moving or transferring aircraft.
Smash Soviet airgroups with airfield attacks. Maintain air superiority.
At the start of the 1941 scenario fall back at least 4 hexes to allow your units to entrench. Make them come to YOU.
Don't concentrate airgroups into single, large groups. Large groups are extremely vulnerable to concentrated enemy air attacks.
Good officers have a greater effect on Soviet supply than on Axis supply. Use the change leaderoption to get your best leaders into the field.
Use weak, expendable units as a buffer to slow the Axis' advance.
Counterattack during snow and blizzard when the axis units are more adversely affected than your units. Axis units suffer greater supply losses - and slower readiness recovery - during these weather conditions.
Air Operations: ................. 18, 19
Airfield Bombing ................. 19
Airlift Supplies ............. 18, 19
Combat Support ............... 10, 23
Interdiction ..................... 19
Strategic Bombings ............... 19
Blitzkrieg ........................... 9
Combat Value (CV) ................... 20
Combat Resolution ... 19, 20, 23, 24, 25
Command Summary ..................... 41
Commander Ratings ................ 10,39
Events ............................. 6,7
Factories ........... 17, 18, 25, 26, 27
Formulas ............................ 40
General Orders ...................... 13
Historical Notes ................. 29-34
HQ .................... 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
HQ Control Areas ..................... 9
Hexes ................................ 1
March Mode ...................... 13, 35
Movement Costs .................. 13, 35
Naval Supply ...................... 8, 9
Partisan Activity .................... 7
Plot Mode ....................... 14, 35
Production Control ...... 17,18,25,26,27
Readiness ........................... 12
Readiness Recovery .................. 12
Rail Mode ....................... 13, 14
Rail Conversion ...................... 8
Replacements ........................ 11
Replacement Level ................... 15
Replacement Pool ................ 11, 27
Supply ..................... 7, 8, 9, 35
Supply Level (SL) ................ 7, 35
Supply Lines ...................... 7, 8
Supply Modifiers .............. 8, 9, 35
Terrain .................. 8, 14, 2O, 35
Weather Effects .................. 8, 35
Game Design & Programming
ROBERT V. DALY
MICHAEL MUSSER & GUNTER MEYER
MICHAEL MUSSER & GUNTER MEYER
Special Historical Notes
RODGER BAYCHELDER, GRAEME BAYLESS, MIKE BENCH, JOEL BILLINGS, KEITH BRORS, JOHN BRUNING, ROBERT DALY, CYRUS HARRIS, DON McCLURE, GUNTER MEYER, PAUL MURRAY, MIKE MUSSER, RICK WHITE, JEFF YOUNG, CLIFF MANN, RICHARD WILSON
Art, Graphic Design and Desktop Publishing
LOUIS SAEKOW DESIGN: PETER GASCOYNE
A&A PRINTERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS
Second Front Copy Protection
Page Word Paragraph Code
1 3 Last points
2 3 Last cannot
3 5 1 played
4 1 1 menu
5 1 Last COMBAT
6 3 1 phase
7 5 1 reinforce
8 5 Last holds
9 4 Last centered
10 3 Last aircraft
11 7 3 pool
12 4 3 whenever
13 4 2 cursor
14 3 3 march
15 3 Last level
16 3 Last symbols
17 2 2 numbers
18 2 Last operations
19 4 Last plotted
20 3 Last engage
23 7 Last results
24 2 3 entrenchment
25 3 4 factories
26 3 1 below
27 2 3 Soviet
Alternatively, when confronted with the copy protection question, just hold down a random number and the correct answer will soon be selected.
Second Front IBM
Here are some clarifications to the rules that came up after they were printed.
Second Front takes at least 560,000 bytes of free memeory to run in EGA mode.
If you have a problem with the game, run the DOS command CHKDSK and see how
much free memory your computer has. You may have to remove device drivers
and resident programs to free up enough memory to run Second Front in EGA
The MOSCOW SCENARIO victory conditions in the manual are incorrect for the
Axis player. Kalinin is worth 1 Pt and Tula is worth 1 Pt.
In the 1941 AND 1942 CAMPAIGN SCENARIOS Kazan has replaced Gorki as a
The General Orders Phase listed in the rules is shown as the Axis or Soviet
Action Phase on screen.
The CV of Units and HQs have two values.
Unit CV:#:# = CV Value : Number of formations in the unit.
HQ CV:#/# = CV Value / Number of Air Units attached to HQ
The Axis Western Front, Italian Front, and O.K.W. HQs all have the value of
their air units figured into their CV values for calculating special events.
No other HQ has the value of their air units added to their CV value.
The Axis armies in France do NOT begin getting experience until the Allies
All independent Artillery and Flak units are considered to be motorized. An
Artillery unit with a readiness of 90 or more has its firepower multiplied by
4. An Artillery unit with a readiness of less than 60 has its firepower
multiplied by 1/2.
Units recover readiness at the rate of ten times the effective supply level of
The Axis can have a maximum of 48 regular German corp, 3 SS German corp,
6 Finish corp, 8 Rumanian corp, and 2 Italian corp.
The Russians can have a maximum of 70 regular infantry corp, 8 mechanized
Only the Finnish HQ can create units north of Leningrad. Other Axis, Axis
Ally, or Soviet HQ's may not create units north of Leningrad.
Soviets cannot build mechanized corps in 1941 and can only have a maximum of 8
mechanized corp at one time. On the third turn the Soviet army reorganizes and
losses all of its mechanized corps. They reorganized historically because they
did not have the training and logistics to support the mechanized corp.
The computer will always transfer Axis allied units into a HQ of their own
You can entrench armies during Rain turns.
A player cannot change the Commander for the highest level Headquarters.
Ex. You cannot move Rommel from the North African Front or Stalin from
When you change the aircraft type on a HQ, the type changes, but no aircraft
appear on the display. All transferred aircraft are considered damaged on the
turn that they transfer. They are repaired at the normal rate.
When you change the tank type on a unit, the unit gets the tanks immediately,
but looses some readiness.
If you change the type of tank a factory is producing, the factory takes 3
weeks to retool. The computer will retool factories according to historical
factors in 1 week. The Soviet player cannot modify production for factories
in Murmansk because they represent Lend-Lease. The Soviet player can now
move up to 11 factories to the Urals.
When game is set to BOTH COMPUTER players, you can interrupt the game by
pressing the space bar any time during the turn. The computer will finish the
current turn and then return to the SELECT TYPE OF ACTION menu.
In EGA mode, the color of the map will change to indicate the current weather
conditions: Yellow background is clear, Brown background is rain (mud), and
Grey background is snow or blizzard. During blizzard conditions trees will
Additional Command Keys that are not on the Command Summary Menu:
ALT+Q = Exit to DOS.
ALT+H = Examine Heavy Industry (From replacement pool screen).
ALT+H = Change HQ (For highlighted unit)
ALT+A = Examine Artillery Factories (From replacement pool screen).
ALT+A = Air Transfer Mode (From HQ's only).
ALT+O = Examine Oil/Resources (From replacement pool screen).
P = Set replacement level for currently highlighted HQ.
/ = Help Key (Gets you to Command Summary Menu).
Playtesters: David A. Lucca, Larry S. Webber, Don B. McClure
Final Development: George G. MacDonald