Sim City - Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION PAGE
About System Simulations................................4
The Goals of SimCity....................................5
II. GETTING STARTED
Simulator Reaction Time.................................7
Tutorial - A Walk Through Your City.....................7
III. USER REFERENCE.................................................14
The Editor Window......................................17
The Budget Window......................................22
The Maps/Graphs Window.................................24
The Evaluation Window..................................29
Game Play Level........................................31
Growing a City.........................................31
User Reference Card....................................33
Keyboard Reference Chart...............................34
IV. INSIDE SIMCITY; HOW THE SIMULATOR WORKS........................35
Population - Residential...............................35
External Market - Industrial...........................36
Internal Market - Commercial...........................36
Transportation - Traffic...............................38
V. THE HISTORY OF CITIES AND CITY PLANNING........................40
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Enter SimCity and take control. Become the undisputed ruler of a
sophisticated real-time City Simulation.
Take control of San Francisco 1906, just before the great quake or
Tokyo 1957, just before a monster attack.
Show your pioneering spirit. Start with virgin territory and create
a living, growing city.
The quality of life in your city depends on you. Zone land, balance budgets,
install utilities, manipulate economic markets, control crime, traffic and
pollution, and overcome natural disasters.
Your city is populated by Sims--simulated citizens.
Like their human counterparts, They build houses, condos, churches,
stores and factories. And, also like humans, they complain about things
like taxes, mayors, taxes, city planners, and taxes. They let you know
if they need more housing, better transportation, an airport or a sports
stadium. If they get too unhappy, they move out; if you collect excess taxes,
the city deteriorates.
ABOUT SYSTEM SIMULATIONS
SimCity is the first of a new type of entertainment/education software,
called SYSTEM SIMULATIONS. We provide you with a set of RULES and TOOLS
that describe, create and control a system. In the case of SimCity the
system is a city.
The challenge of playing a SYSTEM SIMULATION game is to figure out how the
system works and how to take control of it. As master of the system you are
free to use the TOOLS to create and control an unlimited number of systems
(in this case cities) within the framework and limits provided by the
In SimCity, the RULES to learn are based on city planning and management,
Human factors - residential space and amenities, availability of jobs, and
quality of life;
Economic factors - land value, industrial and commercial space,
unemployment, internal and external markets, electric power, taxation, and
funding for city services;
Survival factors - strategies for dealing with disasters, crime, and
Political factors - public opinion, zoning, and keeping residents and
businesses satisfied with your city and your performance;
The TOOLS provide you with the ability to plan, layout, zone, build,
bulldoze, rezone, and manage a city.
PLAN - Mapping systems give physical and demographic overviews of the
LAYOUT - Design living and working areas, road and transit systems, and
ZONE - Set zoning boundaries for parks, residential, commercial and
BULLDOZE - Clear forests for city growth, build landfill along waterways,
clear and rezone developed areas.
MANAGE - Usingf the mapping and graphing systems, gather up-to-date
information on traffic density, population trends, power grid status,
pollution, crime, land value, police and fire department efficiency, and
cash flow. Set the tax rate and funding levels for city services.
But the most important TOOL of all is the Simulator itself. Test your plans
and ideas as you watch the city grow or shrink through the immigration and
emigration of industrious Simulated Citizens. Sims will move in and build
homes, hospitals, churches, stores and factories in the zones you provide,
or move out in search of jobs or a better life elsewhere. The success of
the city is based on the quality of the city you design and manage.
THE GOALS OF SimCity
There are many goals to be pursued and reached in SimCity.
Each of the eight included Scenarios is actually a game in itself, with an
unlimited number of ways to win - or lose.
Each Scenario is a city which is either the victim of horrible planning or
about to become the victim of a natural disaster. After you load in a
Scenario, you will have a limited amount of time to correct or repair the
problem. If you are successful you will be given the key to the city. If
not, you may be ridden out of town on a rail.
If one strategy doesn't work, try another. And another. There are a million
stories in each city, and you write them.
YOUR DREAM CITY
Perhaps the main goal of SimCity is for you to design, manage, and maintain
the city of your dreams.
Your ideal place to live may be a bustling metropolis, lots of people, lots
of cars, tall buildings; high-energy, high-density living. Or it may be a
small rural community, or a linked group of small communities providing
slow paced country living.
As long as your city can provide places for people to live, work, shop and
play, it will attract residents. And as long as traffic, pollution,
overcrowding crime or taxes don't drive them away, your city will live.
(A picture of the opening screens is Page 6)
SIMULATION REACTION TIME
The simulator is a very complex multi-tasking piece of software. It is
continually performing many checks, calculations, and updates, as well as
keeping a watch on the mouse and keyboard to respond to youe demands. When
you load in a City, give the simulator a few minutes to compile its data
and update the maps, graphics, population levels, etc. Some of the other
times when the simulator lags behind you are: powering zones and updating
the city services map after installing police and fire stations.
TUTORIAL - A WALK THROUGH YOUR CITY
Boot your AMIGA, then insert your SimCity disk and double-click the
NOTE: In SimCity, use the LEFT mouse button, unless otherwise noted. The
RIGHT button is used primarily to activate and select menu items from the
title bar. The RIGHT button activates the BULLDOZER function while in the
Editor Window, so don't press it unless you mean it.
After a few seconds, the "Welcome to SimCity" roadsign will appear. It
displays the following options:START A NEW CITY, LOAD A CITY, and SELECT A
Click START NEW CITY. The Workbench will reappear, and the program will
continue to load. You will soon see a small notice window that informs you
that the program is terraforming a new city. A map of undeveloped land will
be generated and displayed. You will be given a choice: GENERATE A NEW
TERRAIN or USE THIS MAP. Click USE THIS MAP. Click the OK box when you are
done. You are now given a choice of GAME PLAY LEVEL. Click EASY.You will now
be asked to name your city. Go ahead and name it, or accept the default name
SOMEWHERE. You are given a choice: GENERATE A NEW TERRAIN or USE THIS MAP.
Click USE THIS MAP. Click the OK box when you are done.
(A picure of the MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW and the BUDGET WINDOW is Page 8)
You will be shown the MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW.
On the left side of the window is the map; an overall view of your
entire terrain, approximately 10 miles by 10 miles in area.
The icons below the map are buttons to activate and display views of your
city. We'll play with them later.
On the right side of the screen you can view time-based graphs of various
city data. We'll come back to these later, too.
The rectangle located somewhere on the map indicates the portion
of your terrain that will be visible in your EDITOR WINDOW - your main work
area. Click and drag the box around the map, choosing the area you wish
to work on, then click the "RETURN TO EDITOR" button in the lower
right-hand corner of the screen to leave the MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW and go to
the EDITOR WINDOW to begin building your city.
NOTE:The BUDGET WlNDOW will pop up once a year in city time. When it does,
just click the GO WITH THESE FIGURES box at the bottom.
(Page 10 is a picture of the EDITOR WINDOW)
You are now in the EDIT WINDOW, looking at a close-up view of the area
box in the MAPS WINDOW. Note the icons on the right. They work just like
icons in various draw and paint programs.
At the top of the EDITOR WINDOW is the Title Bar. This displays the Name of
the city, the date and your available city funds. There are also the usual
Amiga gadgets to move the window to the top or bottom of the stack.
Note: You can click and drag the Title Bar to move the Editor Window, but
the window must be all the way to the top of the screen for terrain
scrolling to function properly.
Move the mouse pointer to the title bar, and press and hold the RIGHT
button. This will show you the various menus available in SimCity. Without
choosing any menu items, slide the mouse pointer across the screen and take
a look at the available menus.
To scroll the terrain under the EDITOR WINDOW, move the pointer to the top,
bottom, sides, or corners of the screen. Cursor keys can also be used to
Your available land is made of three types of territory. The brown areas
are clear land, the green areas are forests and shrubs, and the blue areas
are water. You can build only on clear land. You can clear forest and extend
coastlines with your bulldozer. You can run roads, rails and power across
To clear the terrain, click the bulldozer icon. The "pointer" is a small
square, outlining the area that will be bulldozed every time you click the
mouse. Move your bulldozer pointer over some forest land and click. The
forest section under your pointer is now clear land. Now, hold the button
down and move slowly across the forest. Mass destruction. Clear a large area
of land to prepare for building.
To begin a city we need three things: places for Sims to live, places for
Sims to work, and power.
Click the Residential icon (the house), then move back to your terrain.
Your pointer is now a larger square outline. This outline indicates how much
clear space you will need to create a residential zone - a place for Sims
to live. Clicking the left mouse button in clear terrain "zones" the land.
The "R" in the center of the zone indicates that it is a residential zone.
The flashing lightning symbol indicates that the zone has no power. Place a
few more residential zones adjacent to the first one.
If you have trouble placing a zone, make sure it is on open land. You
cannot zone on water, trees or over other zones.
Now decide where to position a power plant in your city. Point to the
power plant icon and click the mouse button.
A small menu will appear, giving you the option of choosing a coal or nuclear
plant. For now, choose the coal power plant. The outline for the power plant
is even larger than for the residential zone. Place the Power Plant in some
open space near your residential zones. If your power plant is not directly
adjacent to a zone, you will have to run a power line from your power
plant to the residential zone.
To do this, click the power line icon. Using your mouse pointer and button,
lay power lines from your power plant to your residential zones. Adjacent
power line sections will automatically connect themselves to one another.
Roadways and transit lines connect in the same manner. In a moment, the
flashing symbols will disappear, indicating that your zones have been powered.
Any zones that are adjacent to a powered zone do not need separate power
lines run to them. Soon you will see small houses start to appear. The Sims
have started to move in.
When you zone land, you designate where building is allowed. It is the
Sims who actually build.
Now that you have a few residential zones, you're ready for Commercial
and Industrial areas; places for the Sims to work, shop and transact
business. Select the Commercial Icon (several buildings)and place a few
Commercial Zones near your residential ones. Then select the Industrial Icon
(the factory) and map out some Industrial Zones. Connect all necessary power
NOTE: There is a delay between the time you connect power to a zone and the
time the flashing lightning symbol disappears. This delay gets longer as
your city gets larger.
Notice that as you select different icons, the Icon's description and its
associated cost will be displayed in the box just above the Icons. The
message bar across the top of the EDIT WINDOW displays your total funds
available. If you do not have enough money in your treasury to pay for a
certain function, that icon will be "ghosted" on your screen and is
unavailable for use.
Now, click the Road icon and add roads from your residential housing to the
commercial and industrial areas to allow the Sims to commute to work. Roiad
sections connect themselves like power line sections. Once you have roads,
traffic will be generated.
Now move the mouse pointer to the title bar, press and hold the RIGHT mouse
button, slide the pointer to the WINDOW MENU, and select the BUDGET WlNDOW.
This is where you set the level of funding for your fire, police and trans-
portation departments. Click the up or down arrows to change the funding
level. You can also adjust the current property tax rate. If you have no
police or fire departments, you can't fund them. You cannot fund more than
100%. Click the GO WITH THESE FIGURES box when you are done.
Now select MAP&GRAPH from the WINDOWS MENU to return to the MAPS/GRAPHS
WINDOW. By clicking on the icons along the lower left, you can see different
demographic views of your city. You will need this information to build and
adjust conditions in your city. For example, you can pinpoint the areas with
the highest crime to determine locations for new police stations.
Additional information can be gained by cycling through the available
Graphs. Unlike the maps, which only show the current state of
your city, the graphs give you a record of the past so you can gauge
trends and cycles.
This is all the basic information you need to run SimCity, but we suggest
reading on. The User Reference explains in detail how to use each program
function. Inside SimCity explains the inner workings of the simulator and
gives some hints and tips for using it. There is also an essay on The
History of Cities and City Planning and a Bibliography for serious City
SimCity Menus follow the standard Amiga interface. Use the RIGHT mouse
button to activate and select menu items.
ABOUT brings up a screen giving fascinating and vital information about
SimCity and Maxis.
START NEW CITY generates a new, empty terrain. Clears existing city (if
any) from memory. You will first be asked if you wish to "GENERATE A NEW
GROUND MAP AND LOSE THE CURRENT ONE?" and gives the option to go ahead or
cancel. You will next be given a chance to set the GAME PLAY LEVEL, and
then name your city.
PICK SCENARIO brings up a menu of available SCENARIOS to load and run.
LOAD CITY brings up the standard Amiga "File Loading Screen", allowing you
to load a previously saved city.
SAVE CITY brings up the standard Amiga "File Saving Screen" allowing you to
save the scenario or city-in-progress for later use. Once you have loaded a
secnario, it can be saved and reloaded, like any city, without the impending
PRlNT ClTY brings up a window giving you the choice of printing out your
city on a single page, or on a multi-page poster. You may also cancel the
QUIT OUT! ends SimCity.
UNDO cancels the last operation you performed.
The options in this window stay with the simulation, not with the city.
AUTO BUDGET keeps your budget at the same percentage setings without
asking for approval every year.
AUTO BULLDOZER allows you to place zones, roadways, etc., directly
on top of trees and shoreline without manually bulldozing first.
You will be charged the same as for manual bulldozing.
AUTO GOTO EVENT automatically transports you to the scene of a disaster or
SOUNDS ON toggles the city sounds on and off. Defaults to the
"on" position. The simulation runs slightly faster with the sound off.
GAME SPEED brings up a sub-menu allowing you to set the simulation
speed. FAST sets city time to maximum speed. MEDIUM is the default setting,
about three times slower than FAST. SLOW sets the speed about seven times
slower than FAST. PAUSED stops time. Zoning and building are possible in
POWER BOLTS toggle on and off the presence of the flashing power sign in
The DISASTERS MENU allows you to set natural disasters loose in your city.
Use these disasters to test your ability to deal with emergencies in your
city or just to release some aggression. More information on disasters,
their causes, and dealing with them is presented later.
**WARNING** It is a good idea to save your city to disk before you
set a disaster loose - just in case.
FIRE starts a fire somewhere within the city limits.
FLOOD causes a flood to occur near the water.
AlRDISASTER causes a plane to crash. If there are no planes in the air,
one will be generated.
TORNADO causes a tornado to appear within the city limits.
EARTHQUAKE causes a MAJOR earthquake.
MONSTER sets a monster loose in your city.
BUDGET brings up the BUDGET WINDOW.
EVAL brings up the EVALUATION WINDOW.
MAP&GRAPH brings the MAPS/GRAPH WlNDOW.
WORKBENCH allows you to bring up the WORKBENCH WINDOW, or close it to free
up another 30K of memory for SimCity.
(Page 16 is a picture of the Editor Window again (same as 10))
THE EDITOR WINDOW
This is where all actual zoning and building takes place.
There are three types of terrain in the EDITOR WINDOW.
The brown area is open land, where you can zone and build.
The green areas are trees and forests. You cannot zone or build on green
areas. You may BULLDOZE trees and forests to turn it into clear land. While
some bulldozing is necessary, clearing away too much green area will
result in lower property values.
The blue area is water. You cannot zone or build on water. You must
bulldoze coastlines to create landfills before you can build or zone there.
Roads and power lines can be laid across water, with no turns or
EDITOR WINDOW GADGETS
TITLE BAR displays city name. Clicking and dragging the Title Bar allows
you to relocate the EDIT WINDOW.
NOTE: The EDITOR WINDOW must be all the way to the top of the
screen for the scrolling to work properly.
At the right of the Title Bar are the standard Amiga gadgets for moving
the window to the top and bottom of the stack.
Behind the Title Bar is the Menu Bar.
The MESSAGE BAR, located directly below the Title Bar displays status
messages to you from the simulator and demand messages from the Sims
GOTO BUTTON (the eye) takes you to the scene of a disaster or major event
mentioned in the Message Bar.
ICONS along the right are for the editing functions.
The ICON TITLE BOX, located just above the Iocns gives the name and cost of
the selected icon.
EDITOR WINDOW CONTROLS
The MOUSE is used to activate Icons. Moving the Mouse pointer to the sides
or corners of the screen causes the terrain to scroll below the EDITOR
The LEFT mouse button is used to select icons, and place items.
The RIGHT mouse button performs the Bulldozer function, regardless of the
The CURSOR KEYS will also cause scrolling.
Z and X cycle active icons in opposite directions.
Q - (Query) - Hold down the "Q" key while clicking on parts of your city
to bring up a status box identifying the spot (zone, road, terrain, etc.),
and giving information on Population Density, Land Value, Crime Rate,
Pollution and Growth.
B, R, T and P are shortcut keys. No matter which icon is selected, if you
Push and hold down the "B" key, you will be in active Bulldozer mode.
Release the "B" key to return control to the selected icon. The "R" key
activtes Roadbuilding mode in the same way. The "T" key activates Transit
line building, and the "P" key puts you in Power line mode.
EDITOR WINDOW ICONS
Active Icons arc highlighted. Ghosted Icons are unavailable due to lack
of funds. When an Icon is selected a rectangle will accompany the pointer
to indicate the size and area of land that will be affected.
BULLDOZER clears trees and forests, creates landfill along the water,
levels developed, existing zones and clears rubble caused by disasters.
The Auto-Bulldozer option only works on natural terrain, not developed land.
NOTE:Bulldozing the center of a zone will destroy the entire zone.
Bulldozing one section of land costs $1.
ROADS connect developed ares. lntersections and turns are automatically
created. Lay continuous roads by clicking and dragging your pointer.
Be careful - if you accidentally lay a road in the wrong place you will
have to pay for bulldozing and rebuilding.
Roads may not be placed over zoned areas. They may be placed over trees,
shrubbery, and shoreline only after bulldozing or activating the
Auto-Bulldozer. Roads can cross over power lines and transit lines only at
Laying roads across water creates a bridge. Bridges can only be built in a
straight line - no curves, turns or intersections. Shorelines must be
bulldozed prior to building a bridge.
Roadways are maintained by the transit budget, and wear out if there is
a lack of funding. The amount of yearly funding requested by the
trnsportation department is $1 for each section of road, $4 for each
section of bridge.
It costs $10 to lay one section of road and $50 to lay one section of bridge.
TRANSIT LINES create a railway system for intra-city mass transit.
Place tracks in heavily trafficked areas to help alleviate congestion.
Intersections and turns are created automatically. Lay continuous transit
lines by clicking and dragging your pointer. Tracks laid under rivers will
appear as dashed lines. These underwater tunnels must be vertical or horizon-
tal - no turns, curves or intersections.
Transit lines are maintained by the transit budget. The level of funding
affects the efficiency of the system. The amount of yearly funding
requested by the transportation department is $4 for each section of rail,
and $10 for each section of tunnel.
It costs $20 per section of track on land, $100 per section under water.
POWER LINES carry power from power planlts to zoned land and between zones.
All developed land needs power to function.
Power lines cannot cross zoned land. They can be built over trees,
shrubbery, and shoreline only after bulldozing, or activating the
Auto-Bulldoze function from the Options Window.
Power is conducted through adjacent zones. Unpowered zones display the
flashing power symbol. There is a delay between the time you power up a zone
and when the flashing symbol disappears. The delay grows longer as the city
Junctions and corners are automatically created. Lay continuous power lines
by clicking and dragging your pointer. Power lines across a river must be
horizontal or vertical - no turns, curves or intersections. Shorelines must
be bulldozed before placing power lines. Power lines consume some power due to
It costs $5 to lay one piece of power line on land, $25 on water.
PARKS can be placed on clear land. Parks, like forests and water, raise the
land value of surrounding zones. Parks can be bulldozed as fire breaks or
reserve space for later mass transit expansion.
It costs $10 to zone one park.
RESIDENTIAL ZONES are where the Sims build houses, apartments and community
facilities such as schools and churches.
Residential zones develop into one of four values: slums, lower middle class,
upper middle class, and upper class. They can range in population density
from single-family homes to high-rise apartments and condominiums.
Factors influencing residential value and growth are pollution, traffic density,
population density, surrounding terrain, roadway access, parks and utilities.
It costs $100 to zone one plot of land as Residential.
Residential zones are bordered in green to aid in distinguishing them from
COMMERClAL ZONES are used for many things, including retail stores, office
buildings, parking garages, and gas stations.
There are four values for commercial property and five levels of growth from
the small general store to tall skyscrapers. Factors influencing the value
and growth of commercial areas include internal markets, pollution, traffic
density, residential access, labor supply, airports, crime rates, transit
access, and utilities.
It costs $100 to zone one plot of land as Commercial.
Commercial zones are bordered in blue to aid in distinguishing them from
INDUSTRIAL ZONES are for heavy manufacturing and industrial services.
There are four levels of industrial growth from small pumping stations
and warehouses to large factories.
Factors influencing the growth of industrial areas are external markets,
seaports, transit access, residential access, labor supply, and utilities.
It costs $100 to zone one plot of land as Industrial.
FIRE DEPARTMENTS make surrounding areas less susceptible to fires.
When fires do occur, they are put out sooner and do less damage if a
station is near. The effectiveness of fire containment depends on the
Ievel of fire department funding.
It costs $500 to build a fire station. Full yearly maintenance of each Fire
Station is $100.
POLICE DEPARTMENTS lower the crime rate in the surrounding area. This in
turn raises property values. Place these in high-density crime areas as
defined by your Crime Rate map. The efficiency of a station depends on
the level of police department funding.
It costs $500 to build a police station. Full yearly maintenance of each
Police Station is $100.
POWER PLANTS can be coal or nuclear, chosen from a sub-menu provided when
you click and hold on the icon. The nuclear plant is more powerful but
carries a slight risk of meltdown. The coal plant is less expensive, but
less powerful and it pollutes.
All zoned land needs power to develop and grow. When developed land loses
power, it will degenerate to barren ground unless power is restored.
Connecting too many zones to a Power Plant causes brownouts.
Coal power plants cost $3000 to build, and supply enough electricity for
about 50 zones. Nuclear power plants cost $5000 and supply electricity for
about 150 zones.
STADIUMS encourage residential growth. The message window will indicate
when the city wants a stadium. You may build a stadium in your city prior
to this request without negative effect. Stadiums indirectly generate a
lot of revenue, but create a lot of traffic. Properly maintaining a stad-
ium requires a good road and transit network.
It costs $3000 to build a stadium.
AlRPORTS increase the growth potential of your commercial markets. Once a
city starts geting large, commercial growth will level off without an airport.
Airports are large and expensive and should not be built unless your city
can afford one. Position airports to keep flight paths over water whenever
possible lessening the impact of air disasters.
Once you build an airport you will see airplanes flying above your city to
and from the airport. There is also a traffic helicopter which alerts you to
heavy traffic areas.
It costs $10,000 to zone land for use as an airport.
SEA PORTS incrcease the potential for industrial growth. They have little
effect in a small city, but contribute a lot to industrialization in a
Sea Ports should be placed on a shoreline. The shoreline must be bulldozed
prior to zoning a seaport. Once the port is operational, you may see ships
in the water.
It costs $5000 to zone land for use as a Sea Port.
THE BUDGET WINDOW
When your first taxes are collected in a new city, and each year after,
the BUDGET WINDOW will appear (unless you select the Auto-Budget function).
You will be asked to set the funding levels for the fire, police, and trans-
portation departments, and to set the property tax rate.
You can raise and lower budget levels by clicking on the little arrows
that correspond to each category. A percentage indicator will display
the level of funding that will be maintained if you turn on the Auto-Budget
function. You may adjust your tax rate by clicking on the arrows next to the
tax rate indicator. Click on "GO WITH THESE FIGURES" to exit the BUDGET WINDOW.
The maximum tax rate you can set is 20%.
The miniumu tax rate you can set is 0%.
The optimum tax rate for fast growth is between 5% and 7%.
To slow city growth without actually shrinking set the tax rate to 9%.
The taxes collected from each zone is based on the following formula: Tax =
Population * Land Value * Tax Rate * a Scaling Constant. The scaling
constant changes with the difficulty level of the game.
The level of yearly funding requested for the fire and police departments is
$100 per station that you have placed. Until you actually build fire or
police stations, you cannot fund them. You cannot allocate more than 100%
of the requested funding for fire and police departments - SimCity police
officers and fire inspectors are honest and will not accept your bribes.
Allocating less than the requested amount will decrease the effective
coverage of the police or fire station.
The amount of yearly funding requested for the transportation department is
$1 for each section of road, $4 for each section of bridge (roads over
water), $4 for each section of rail, and $10 for each section of tunnel
(underwater rails). You cannot allocate more than 100% of the requested
Transportation maintenance funding slightly below 100% will cause slow,
minor deterioration of the transit system - an occasional pothole or bad
track section. Funding between 90 and 75% will cause noticeable damage -
and rail will be unsafe. Funding below 75% will cause rapid deterioration
of your transit system.
Cash Flow = Taxes Collected - Total Allocated Funds. It will be a negative
number if your yearly maintenance costs are greater than your yearly tax
A major difference between SimCity and a real city is that SimCity does not
allow budget deficits. If you don't have the money, you can't spend it. Try
not to let your city run with a negative cash flow.
An hourglass icon is displayed at the top left of the budget
window. It indicates the time remaining to enter the budget information.
When the hourglass empties, the budget that is set is accepted. If you
need more time, click in the BUDGET WINDOW to reset the hourglass.
The MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW supplies the city planner with vital information on
his city. Click on the "RETURN TO EDITOR" button when you wish to leave the
MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW and return to the EDITOR WINDOW.
The left side of the MAP/GRAPH window supplies you with maps showing
various overviews of your city.
On the map is a red box, indicating the area of the map that will be
visible in the edit window. The box can be moved around the map by placing
the pointer where you want the center of the box to be and clicking the
left mouse button. You can also hold down the buttonb and drag the box
around the map.
For demographic maps that show density, rate or comparative levels, a Color
Key will be shown to the left of the map.
You may also notice yellow letters on the map. These are markers to let you
know where moveable objects are. An "S" marks the location of a ship. An
"R" marks the location of a railroad train. An "H" marks the location of a
helicopter. An "A" marks the location of an airplane. An "M" marks the
location of a Monster, and a "T" marks the location of a Tornado.
The ClTY FORM MAP shows the physical shape of your city, demarking
developed and non-developed areas. Zones are shown in dark grey, roads in
black, and rails in light grey. Use this map to plan city expansion.
The POWER GRID MAP shows you the power network of your city. Powered zones
are shown with a yellow dot in their middle. Unpowered zones have a black
dot. Power lines on land are shown in black. Power lines over water are
shown in yellow. Use this map to locate unpowered zones and breaks in the
The TRANSIT MAP is a road and rail map of the city. Roads are shown in
grey. Rails are shown in black. Use this view to examine your city's access
to specific areas and to plan future expansion of the network.
The ZONES MAP shows and distinguishes all zones and developed areas in the
city. Residential zones are shown in green. Commercial zones are blue.
Industrial zones are yellow. Other developed areas, such as Power Plants,
Airports, and Sea Ports are shown in black.
The POPULATION DENSITY MAP displays the average number of people occupying
an area each day. Use this map to locate under-utilized areas and
The TRAFFIC DENSITY MAP shows the amount of traffic on the roads. Spot traffic
problems and determine where new roadways are needed.
The CRIME RATE MAP shows the level and location of crime in your city.
Crime is calculated from population density land value and proximity of
The POLLUTION INDEX MAP shows levels of pollution throughout your city.
Pollution is generated primarily by industry, traffic, and coal Power
The LAND VALUE map shows the relative value of land within the city limits.
Land values are used to establish the amount of revenue generated in taxes.
The GROWTH RATE MAP shows the most recent growth (positive or negative) of
your city, and where it is occurring.
The FIRE PROTECTION MAP displays the effective radius of Fire Stations
based on their location, power, and funding levels.
The POLICE INFLUENCE MAP displays the effective radius of Police Stations
based on their location, power, and funding level.
USING THE MAPS
The MAP WINDOW should be constantly referred to in all stages of city
planning, building and managing.
BEFORE YOU BUILD
Use the map before beginning a new city to plan:
where you want your city center,
where you want the high class waterfront residential areas,
where you will cross water with bridges, power lines, and tunnels,
where to place power plants,
where to place large industrial sections away from the residential
the general layout of the city.
Printing the map and sketching in your plan with pencil or pen will save a
lot of bulldozing and re-zoning and rebuilding.
DURING CITY GROWTH
Use the map to guide your city's growth around forest areas, to preserve
the trees and improve property values.
Use the transportation map along with the traffic density map to plan
traffic control and expansion.
Use the city maps to make sure you have the proper ratio of residential to
commercial to industrial zones.
Use the pollution map to detect problem areas, and disperse the industrial
zones and/or replace roads with rails.
Printing out the map in various stages of development and doing some
preliminary expansion planning with pencil can be useful. Printouts can
also be used for historical records.
DURING CITY MAINTENANCE
Coal power plants will only supply approximately 50 zones with power and
nuclear plants will supply about 150. Overloading power plants can cause
brownouts and blackouts. Use the power grid map to locate zones that have
Use the city services maps to evaluate the effective coverage of your
police and fire departments.
Use the crime rate map to locate problem areas that need more police
Use the pollution map to locate problem areas.
Use the transportation and traffic density maps to determine where to
replace roads with rails.
Use the land value map to locate depressed areas for improvement or
Use the city maps to maintain the proper ratio of residential to commercial
to industrial zones.
The right side of the MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW gives you time-based graphs of
various city data. You may view graphs for time periods of either the last
ten years or the last 120 years by clicking on the "10 YEAR/120 YEAR"
The RESIDENTIAL POPULATION graph shows the total population in residential
The COMMERClAL POPULATlON graph shows the total population in commercial
The INDUSTRIAL POPULATION graph shows the total population in industrial
The CRIME RATE chart shows the overall crime rate of the entire city.
The CASH FLOW graph shows your city's cash flow: money collected in taxes
last year minus money it took to maintain your city.
Note: Cash flow has little to do with your current funds, or how much you
spend in building (except that city expansion will increase both taxes
collected and maintenance costs).
The line in the center of the Cash Flow graph represents a cash flow of
zero. Do not build more infrastructure (roads, rail, police departments,
fire stations) than you can support with tax revenues.
The POLLUTlON graph shows the overall pollution reading of the entire city.
USING THE GRAPHS
The Graphs give information on many of the same factors as the Maps, but
show the information over time. Graphs are for locating trends in city life
that won't be noticeable in a map. If you look at a map, for example the
crime rate map, every year, a very slight rise in the crime rate will not
be noticeable. But on a graph, you would easily locate the upward trend in
crime because you will be viewing the levels for a number of years at the
Residential, commercial and industrial population growth and/or declines
can be tracked and displayed. If you notice a downward trend in any of
these, refer to the User Reference Card to locate potential problems and
Crime rate can be displayed, revealing slight but consistent upward or
Use the cash flow graph to track your city's efficiency as it grows. If
your maintenance costs are higher than your tax revenues, you will have a
negative cash flow.
Use the pollution graph to catch rising levels of pollution before they
reach a problem level.
(Page 28 is a picture of the Evaluation Window.)
THE EVALUATION WINDOW
The EVALUATION WINDOW gives you a performance rating. You can access it
through the WINDOWS MENU.
PUBLIC OPINION is presentcd in poll form, rating your overall job
as mayor and listing what the public regards as the city's most pressing
problems. You are advised to keep your residents happy or they might
migrate away, and you will be left with a "ghost town."
In general, if more than 55% of the populace thinks you are doing a good
job, then you can feel secure about keeping your job.
If 10% or less of the people think something is a problem, then it's not
These are the problems that citizens complain about, and how to correct
TRAFFIC--replace dense sections of roads with rails.
CRIME--Build more police departments, or try to raise land values.
POLLUTION--Replace roads with rails, disperse industrial zones.
HOUSING--Zone more residences.
HOUSING COSTS--Zone more residences in low property value areas.
FIRES--Build more fire departments.
TAXES--Lower taxes (if you can).
UNEMPLOYMENT--Build more industrial and commercial zones.
STATISTICS on POPULATION, NET MIGRATION, and ASSESSED VALUE are displayed,
along with the city's GAME LEVEL and the OVERALL CITY SCORE. This data is
calculated once a year at budget time.
POPULATION is the number of residents in your city.
The NET MIGRATION statistic provides a rating of the desirability of your
city. If people are leaving in droves, you know something is rotten in
The ASSESSED VALUE is the combined value of all city-owned property:
roads, rails, power plants, police and fire stations, airports, sea ports,
parks, etc. Does not include residential, commercial and industrial zones.
The CATEGORIES are defined by population as follows:
VILLAGE 0 to 1,999
TOWN 2,000 to 9,999
CITY 10,000 to 49,999
CAPITAL 50,000 to 99,999
METROPOLIS 100,000 to 499,999
MEGALOPOLIS 500,000 and above.
The OVERALL CITY SCORE is a composite score based on the following factors
(some positive, some negative):
MAJOR FACTORS--Crime, pollution, housing costs, taxes, traffic,
unemployment, fire protection, unpowered zones, city growth rate.
MINOR FACTORS--Stadium needed (but not built), sea port needed (but not
built), airport needed (but not built), road funding, police funding, fire
department funding, and fires.
A large population is not necessarily a sign of a successful city.
Population size does not affect the overall city score, since low
population could indicate a new or growing city.
Since city growth rate does affect the overall city score, a city in which
growth has been intentionally stopped for environmental or aesthetic
reasons will have a slightly lower score.
Disasters will randomly occur as you play SimCity. At higher game levels
the disasters will happen more often. Most disasters can be activated from
the DlSASTERS MENU.
FIRES can start anywhere in the city. Fire spreads fairly rapidly through
forests and buildings, somewhat slower over roadways. Fire will not cross
water or clear land.
The effectiveness of the fire department (which can be viewed in the
MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW) is based on how close it is to the fire, and its funding
levels. Fires inside this effective radius will be extinguished automatically.
If you have no operational fire departments in the area you can try to
control the fire yourself. Since fire will not spread across clear
terrain, you can build firebreaks with the bulldozer. Just surround the
fire with clear areas and it will stop spreading and eventually burn
Note: You cannot directly bulldoze a fire.
FLOODING occurs near the water. Floods gradually spread and destroy buildings
and utilities. After a while the flood waters recede, leaving behind cleared
AIR CRASHES can happen anywhere in the city if an airport is operational.
This happens whenever aircraft collide with things, such as a tornadoes or
another aircraft. When a crash occurs, a fire will start, unless the
crash is on water. A good strategy is to locate the airport away from
the central city to minimize the fire damage.
TORNADOES can occur anywhere on the map at any time. Very fast and
unpredictable, they can appear and disappear at a moment's notice.
Tornadoes destroy everything in their path, and can cause planes,
helicopters, trains, and ships to crash.
EARTHQUAKES are the most devastating disaster. This is a MAJOR earthquake-
between 8.0 and 9.0 on the Richter Scale. It will destroy buildings and
start fires. The
initial damage will vary with the severity of the earthquake, and the
eventual fire damage depends on your fire control efforts.
When an Earthquake occurs, you will see the EDITOR window shake
for a while. When it stops, you will have to take charge and control the
scattered fires. Use the bulldozer to contain the largest fires first and
work your way down to the smaller ones.
MONSTER ATTACKS are provoked by high levels of pollution. A monster
destroys everything in its path, starts fires, and causes planes,
helicopters, trains, and ships to crash.
MELTDOWNS are only possible if you are using a nuclear power plant.
If a meltdown occurs your nuclear plant will explode into flames.
The surrounding area will be unusable for the remainder of the simulation
due to radioactive contamination. Meltdowns are not available on the
SHIPWRECKS can occur once you have an operating seaport. They can cause
fires where the ship crashes into a shore or bridge. Shipwrecks are not
available on the DISASTERS MENU.
The scenarios provide both real and hypothetical problems for you to deal
with in seven famous cities (and one not-so-famous). They present various
levels of difficully. Some problems are in the form of disasters which will
occur some time after you start. Other problems are more long-term such as
Your task is to deal with the problem at hand as well as possible
under the circumstances. After a certain amount of time the city residents
will rate your performance in a special election. If you do very well you
may be given the key to the city. However if you do poorly they might just
run you out of town.
NOTE:To avoid the disaster which is tied to a scenario save
it to disk and reload the city from the saved file.
GAME PLAY LEVEL
When you first start a new city you must pick a difficulty level.
Once a city is started you cannot change the game level; it remains
at your initial setting for the life of the city. The game level setting
is displayed in the evaluation window.
This level - Easy, Medium, or Hard - adjusts the simulation to your current
abilities by altering several factors. A harder setting will increase the
chance of disasters, make residents more intolerant of taxation, cause
maintenance costs to grow, etc.
GROWING A CITY
While growing a city, refer often to the USER REFERENCE CARD. It provides
a chart of city dynamics; how all factors of city life and growth are
The main points to keep in mind while growing a city are:
Grow slow. Watch your money.
All zones must be powered to develop.
Roads or rails must provide access to and from each zone for it to fully
There is a yearly maintenance cost for each section of road, rail, bridge
and tunnel. This can add up. Don't build too many roads and rails and
generate high maintenance costs before your city can generate enough tax
revenues to support them.
Extra powrer plants and redundant power lines are expensive, but can keep
zones from losing power during a disaster or emergency or deteriorating.
Rails can carry much more traffic than roads. While building and zoning an
area that you predict will generate heavy traffic, install rails instead
of roads in the early stages of development.
If you get a lot of heavy traffic warnings, replace roads with rails. You
can even build an entirely roadless city.
Grouping zones together, 4 or 5 in a row touching each other, can
eliminate a lot of power line segments.
Airports, sea ports and stadiums won't help a small city grow--so save
your money until the city gets larger. The Sims will tell you when they
need these things.
Place zones, roads, etc. carefully--they cannot be moved, and you will
have to pay to bulldoze them and rebuild.
As a rule of thumb, the number of residential zones should be
approximately equal to the sum of commercial and industrial zones. When
your city is small, you will need more industrial zones than commercial,
and when your city gets larger, you will need more commercial zones than
Separate the residential areas from the industrial areas.
Proximity to forest, parks, and water increases land value, which
increases the taxes collected. Don't bulldoze any more forest than you
must. Also natural shoreline increases property values more than landfill
Keep in mind that proximity to downtown raises property values. The
simulator defines the downtown area as the "center of mass of the
population density." It calculates the average geographical center of the
A bigger, more populous city is not necessarily better. Having a
self-supporting, profitable city with pleasant surroundings is better than
a huge city that is always broke and has no forest or shoreline.
Use the various maps and graphics to plan city growth, locate problems,
and track your progress. Look for areas that need police and fire coverage
as you go, so you don't have to go back and bulldoze developed zones to
make room for police and fire stations.
Save your city to disk before trying any major new policy so you can go
back if your plan doesn't work.
Print out your city in different stages of evolution to track and plan
Check the EVALUATION WINDOW often. The Sims will let you know how you are
doing. Also the statistics can be useful; if your population is shrinking,
don't go zoning new areas that may never develop, look for problems in the
existing zoned areas, and spend your time and money solving them.
SAVE YOUR CITY TO DISK OFTEN!!!
THE USER REFERENCE CARD
Included in the SimCity box is the User Reference Card. (At the end of
this doc file...)
ZONE EVOLUTION CHART
On one side of the User Reference Card is the Zone Evolution Chart. It
shows the various levels of development and decline of residential,
commercial and industrial zones. The level of development depends on the
land value and population density.
Use this chart along with the Query function to identify, and gather
information on, individual zones.
CITY DYNAMICS CHART
The other side of the card is the City Dynamics Chart. This chart lists
the factors of city life and growth and shows how they inter-relate. Use
this chart to guide you in designing your city. It will help you ifnd
soluitons to the Sims' complaints, and to problems you discover from the
maps and graphs.
KEYBOARD REFERENCE CHART
GENERAL KEYBOARD COMMANDS
RIGHT-AMIGA/ B - Brings up the BUDGET WINDOW
RIGHT-AMIGA/ E - Brings up the EVALUATION WINDOW
RIGHT-AMIGA/ G - Brings up the MAPS/GRAPHS WINDOW
RIGHT-AMIGA/ L - Loads a City
RIGHT-AMIGA/ P - Brings up the PICK SCENARIO MENU.
RIGHT-AMIGA/ N - Starts a New City
RIGHT-AMIGA/ Q - Activates the UNDO command.
RIGHT-AMIGA/ S - Saves a City
SPECIAL EDITOR WINDOW KEYBOARD COMMANDS
X and Z - Cycle through and activate icon functions
Q - ( Query) - Point to a zone or object in the EDIT WINDOW, hold down "Q"
while clicking the left mouse button to bring up information about the zone
B activates the Bulldozer while depressed, overriding active icon.
R activates Road laying while depressed, overriding active icon.
T activates Transit line laying while depressed, overriding active icon.
P activates Power line laying while depressed, overriding active icon.
CURSOR KEYS scroll the terrain under the EDlT WINDOW.
HOW THE SIMULATOR WORKS AND
STRATEGIES FOR USING IT
Many factors influence the chance of your city's prospering or floundering:
both internal factors (the structure and efficiency of your city) and
external factors (the regional economy, disasters, etc.).
Your city is divided into three primary zones: residential, commcercial
and industrial. These zones symbolize the three basic pillars upon which
a city is based: population, industry, and commerce. All three are necessary
for your city to grow and thrive.
RESIDENTIAL ZONES are where the Sims live. Here they build houses, apartments
and community facilities such as churches and schools. Sims are the work force
for your city's commercial and industrial zones.
INDUSTRIAL ZONES are used to site warehouses, factories, and other unsightly
and polluting structures which have a negative impact on surrounding zones.
One of the major goals of planning is to separate these nuisances from the
areas where people live. In this simulation, industrial zones represent the
"basic" production of your city. Things produced here are sold outside the
city to an "external market," bringing money into the city for future growth.
COMMERClAL ZONES represent the retail stores and services in your city,
including gas stations, grocery stores, banks, and offices. Commercial
areas are mainly dedicated to producing goods and services needed within
your city. This is callcd "non-basic" production or production for the
The major factors controlling residential population are birthrate,
availability of jobs and housing, unemployment,and quality of life within
Birthrate as used here is actually a combination of the birthrate (+)
and the deathrate (-). Within SimCity there is always a positive birthrate.
Availabilily of jobs (the employment rate) is a ratio of the current
commercial and industrial populations to the total residential population.
As a rule of thumb, the number of commercial and industrial zones together
should roughly equal the number of residential zones.
If there are more jobs in your city than residents, new settlers will
be attracted. If the job market declines during a local recession, your
people will migrate away in search of jobs.
Housing for your residents is built in the residential zones. These zones
must be powered and connected to the places of employment with a road
and/or rail network. The structures built in residential zones are
influenced by land value and population density.
Quality of life is a measure of relative "attractiveness" assigned to
different zone locations. It is affected by negative factors such as
pollution and crime, and positive factors such as parks and accessibility.
EXTERNAL MARKET - INDUSTRIAL
There are thousands of variables that influence your city. All these
variables can be influenced by your actions with the exception of one.
The external market (the economic conditions that exist outside of your
cily) is controlled by the simulation-there is nothing you can do to change it.
ln many ways, this external market is the original source of all city growth.
Towns frequently begin as production centers (steel towns, refineries, etc.)
that service a demand in the surrounding region. As time passes, the external
market grows to reflect the regional growth going on around your city.
The industry in your city will attempt to grow as the external market grows.
For this to happen there must be room for expansion (more industrial zones)
and an adequate labor supply (more residential zones).
The internal market is completely influenced by the conditions within your
city. Internal production, created in the commercial zones, represents all
the things which are purchased and consumed within the city. Food stores,
gas stations, retail slores, financial serviccs, medical care, etc. - all
depend on a nearby population to service. Within SimCity, the size of the
internal market determines the rate at which commercial zones will prosper.
Commercial zones need enough zoned land to build on and an existent,
sufficient workforce to employ. The structures built in commercial zones
are mainly influenced by land value and population density.
Commercial zones grow and develop to serve the expanding internal market.
Commercial growth will usually be slow at first, when the population is
small and needs very little. As your city grows, commercial growth will
accelerate and the internal market will become a much larger consumer of
your total city production. This accelerating effect, when the external/
industrial production is overtaken by the accelerating internal/commercial
sector, can turn a sleepy little town of 50,000 into a thriving capital of
200,000 in a few short years.
The tax rate you set controls the amounl of income generated by your city.
As taxes are collected each year (simulation time), Ihe BUDGET WINDOW will
appear, giving you the fiscal details of your city and a chance to adjust
rates. The simulation determines the amount of revenue collected by assessing
each zone an amount based on its land value, current level of development
and the current tax rate.
The tax rate has a global effect on your city's growth rate. If you set it
low (O - 4%), growth will be brisk but the city income will be low. If you
set it high (10 - 20%), you will collect a lot in the short run but in the
long run tax income will decrease along with the population. You must keep
tax income high enough to meet city maintenance costs and invest in new
development, but low enough not to scare off residents and businesses. A
high tax rate is one way to control city growth, should you want to
experiment with "growth control" measures.
City budgeting effects the way your city grows. City infrastructure cost
is represented by three departments: police, fire, and transportation. You
may set the funding levels separately for each. All three departments will
request a certain level of funding each year. You may supply all or part of
the requested funds, in the attempt to balance safety needs and budgetary
Police stations lower the crime rate within a territory. The effective
radius of your police station is related to the amount of funding allocated
to the police department. There is a positive correlation between the value
of land and proximity to a police station. Police Stations cost $100 per year
Fire departments prevent and extinguish fires. The level of funding deter-
mines the effective radius of a fire department. Fire departments put out
fires witnin this radius much sooner than outside it, and decrease the
chance that they will start in the first place. Fire Departments cost $100
per year to fund.
When you build roads and rail systems you are charged for construction and
yearly maintenance. The larger your transportation network, the more it will
cost for upkeep. If you decide not to or are unable to pay this maintenance
cost, roads will slowly deteriorate and become unusable. The maintenance
cost for each piece is: Road - $1, Bridge - $4, Rail - $4, Rail tunnel -$10.
Electrical power makes modern cities possible. Efficient and reliable powcr
transmission to all zones is the goal of good "power management."
Periodically in the simulation the entire power grid of your city is
checked for links to power. If a zone is connected (by other zones or
power lines) to a power plant, the zone is considered powered.
Zones must be powered for development to occur. Many things (such as fires,
floods monsters and bulldozers) can knock down power lines and cause
blackouts in parts of your city. Development will stop in unpowered
zones, and if power is not quickly restored, the zone will decline back
to its original state of emptiness. Redundant Power Plants and power
connections can make your power grid more reliable, but running more line
adds construction costs.
TRANSPORTATION - TRAFFIC
One of the most most important elements of city structure is the
transportation network. It moves Sims and goods throughout your cily.
Roads typically occupy as much as 25% - 40% of the land in urban areas.
Traffic along these roads indicates which sections of your road system
are used the most.
Traffic levels are simulated by a process known as "Trip Generation."
Over time, each populated zone in the city will generate a number of
trips, depending on the population. Each generated trip starts at the
origin zone, travels down the road/rail network, and if a "proper dest-
ination" is reached, ends at the destination zone - otherwise, the trip
fails. Trip failure indicates inaccessibility of a zone and limits its
The majority of generated trips represent people commuting to and from
work. Additional traffic is generated by residents traveling to shopping,
recreation, etc. When analyzing traffic, the simulator tests the followinf
From: ORIGIN To: DESTINATION
Residential zones Commercial zones and Industrial zones.
Commercial zones Residential zones and Industrial zones.
Industrial zones Residential zones.
When Sims drive away from an origin zone, they have a limited "trip range"
in which to find a destination zone. Heavy traffic decreases the trip
range. If the destination zone is too far away, the trip is unsucessful.
Repeated unsucessful trips will cause the Sims to move out of the origin
Each road has a limited capacity for traffic. When this capacity is
exceeded traffic jams will form. Traffic jams drastically lower the
capacity of a road, compounding the problem and frustrating drivers.
Traffic conditions fluctuate quickly, responding to things such as open
bridges, sporting events and port activity. Avoid traffic problems by
providing several routes for the traffic to take, and building rail
systems when you can afford to. The traffic helicopter will spot traffic
bottlenecks and report them.
A road must be adjacent to a zone for the zone to be connected to the
traffic pattern. Zones do not conduct traffic the way they conduct power.
Roads and rails may be used together, as Sims are able to get out of their
cars and into transit lines, or from transit lines to roads without delay.
Pollution levels are tracked in all areas of your city. This is a
general "nuisance level" which includes air and water pollution, noise
pollution, toxic wastes, etc. Pollution has a negative impact on the
growth of residential areas.
The primary cause of pollution is industrialized zones. The level of
pollution created by an industrial zone increases with its level of growth.
Traffic is another cause of pollution.There are limited means of combating
the pollution level. Lowering traffic density, limiting industrial development,
and separating the pollution from the residential areas will help.
Crime rates are influenced by population density, local law enforcement
and land values. As population density increases in an area, the number
of crimes committed increases.
Crime will also increase in areas of low land value. The most effective way
to deal with high crime rates is to introduce a police station into the area.
Based on its level of funding, the police station will reduce the rate of
crime in its sphere of influence. A long-lerm approach to lowering crime
is to raise the land value of the area. One way to do this is to demolish
and rezone (urban renewal) .
Land value is one of the most fundamental aspects of urban structure.
The land value of an area affects how that area is used. In this simulation
the land value of an area is based on terrain, accessibility, crime,
pollution, and distance to downtown.
The farther the residents have to go to work, the lower the land value
where they live, due in part to transportation costs. The value of
commercial zones depends greatly on accessibility by the populace.
Land value is also affected by surrounding terrain. If land is closer
to water, trees or parks, its value will rise. Creative placement of
zones within the terrain, with little bulldozing, can make good use of
this natural advantage.
Land value and crime rate have a feedback effect on each other.
Lower land values cause crime rates to rise. Higher crime rates
cause land values to drop, and can cause "transition areas" near
your central city to rapidly decline in value.
HISTORY OF CITIES AND CITY PLANNING
by Cliff Ellis
The building of cities has a long and complex history. Although city planning
as an organized profession has existed for less than a century, all cities
display various degrees of foresight and conscious design in their layout
Early humans led a nomadic existence, relying on hunting and gathering for
sustenance. Between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago, systematic cultivation of
plants and the domestication of animals allowed for more permanent
settlements. During the fourth millenium B.C., the requirements for the
"urban revolution" were finally met: the production of a surplus of
storable food, a system of writing, a more complex social organization, and
technological advances such as the plough, potter's wheel, loom, and
Cities exist for many reasons, and the diversity of urban forms can be
traced to the complex functions that cities perform. Cities serve as
centers of storage, trade, and manufacture. The agricultural surplus from
the surrounding countryside is processed and distributed in cities. Cities
also grew up around marketplaces, where goods from distant places could be
exchanged for local products. Throughout history, cities have been founded
at the intersections of transportation routes, or at points where goods
must shift from one mode of transportation to another, as at river and
Religious elements have been crucial throughout urban history. Ancient
peoples had sacred places, often associated with cemeteries or shrines,
around which cities grew. Ancient cities usually had large temple precincts
with monumental religious buildings. Many medieval cities were built near
monasteries or cathedrals.
Cities often provided protection in a precarious world. During attacks, the
rural populace could flee behind city walls, where defense forces assembled
to repel the enemy. The wall served this purpose for millennia, until the
invention of heavy artillery rendered walls useless in warfare. With the
advent of modern aerial warfare, cities have become prime targets for
destruction rather than safe havens.
Cities serve as centers of government. In particular, the emergence of the
great nation-states of Europe between 1400 and 1800 led to the creation of
new capital cities or the investing of existing cities with expanded
Washington, D.C., for example, displays the monumental buildings, radial
street pattern, and large public spaces typical of capital cities.
Cities, with their concentration of talent, mixture of peoples, and
economic surplus, have provided a fertile ground for the evolution of human
culture: the arts, scientific research, and technical innovation. They
serve as centers of communication, where new ideas and information are
spread to the surrounding territory and to foreign lands.
CONSTRAINTS ON CITY FORM
Cities are physical artifacts inserted into a preexisting natural world,
and natural constraints must be respected if a settlement is to survive and
prosper. Cities must conform to the landscape in which they are located,
although technologies have gradually been developed to reorganize the land
to suit human purposes. Moderately sloping land provides the best urban
site, but spectacular effects have been achieved on such hilly sites as San
Francisco, Rio de Janiero, and Athens.
Climate influences city form. For example, streets have been aligned to
take advantage of cooling breezes, and arcades designed to shield
pedestrians from sun and rain. The architecture of individual buildings
often respects adaptations to temperature, rainfall, snow, wind and other
Cities must have a healthy water supply, and locations along rivers or
streams, or near underground watercourses, have always been favored. Many
large modern cities have outgrown their local water supplies and rely upon
distant water sources diverted by elaborate systems of pipes and canals.
City location and internal structure have been profoundly influenced by
natural transportation routes. Cities have often been sited near natural
harbors, on nagivable rivers, or along land routes determined by regional
Finally, cities have had to survive periodic natural disasters such as
earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, and floods. The San Francisco earthquake
of 1906 demonstrated how natural forces can undo decades of human labor in
a very short time.
ELEMENTS OF URBAN STRUCTURE
City planners must weave a complex, ever-changing array of elements into a
working whole: that is the perennial challenge of city planning. The
physical elements of the city can be divided into three categories:
networks, buildings, and open spaces. Many alternative arrangements of
these components have been tried throughout history, but no ideal city form
has even been agreed upon. Lively debates about the best way to arrange
urban anatomies continue to rage, and to show no signs of abating.
Every modern city contains an amazing array of pathways to carry flows or
people, goods, water, energy, and information. Transportation networks are
the largest and most visible of these. Ancient cities relied on streets,
most of them quite narrow by modern standards, to carry foot traffic and
carts. The modern city contains a complex hierarchy of transportation
channels, ranging from ten-lane freeways to sidewalks. In the United
States, the bulk of trips are carried by the private automobilem with mass
transit a distant second. American cities display the low-density sprawl
characteristic of auto-centered urban development. In contrast, many
European cities have the high densities necessary to support rail transit
Modern cities rely on complex networks of utilities. When cities were
small, obtaining pure water and disposing of wastes was not a major
problem, but cities with large populations and high densities require
expensive public infrastructure. During the nineteenth century, rapid urban
growth and industrialization caused overcrowding, pollution, and disease in
urban areas. After the connection between impure water and disease was
established, American and European cities began to install adequate sewer
and water systems. Since the late nineteenth century, cities have also been
laced with wires and conduits carrying electricity, gas, and communications
Buildings are the most visible elements of the city, the features that give
each city its unique character. Residential structures occupy almost half
od all urban land, with the building types ranging from scattered
single-family homes to dense high-rise apartments. Commercial buildings are
clustered downtown and at various subcenters, with skyscrapers packed into
the central business district and low-rise structures prevailing elsewhere,
although tall buildings are becoming more common in the suburbs. Industrial
buildings come in many forms ranging from large factory complexes in
industrial districts to small workshops.
City planners engage in a constant search for the proper arrangement of
these different types of land use, paying particular attention to the
compatibility of different activities, population densities, traffic
generation, economic efficiency, social relationships, and the height and
bulk of buildings.
Open space is sometimes treated as a leftover, but it contributes greatly
to the quality of urban life. "Hard" spaces such as plazas, malls, and
courtyards provide settings for public activities of all kinds. "Soft"
spaces such as parks, gardens, lawns, and nature preserves provide
essential relief from harsh urban conditions and serve as space for
recreational activities. These "amenities" increasingly influence which
cities will be preceived as desirable places to live.
EVOLUTION OF URBAN FORM
The first true urban settlements appeared around 3,000 B.C. in ancient
Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley. Ancient cities displayed both
"organic" and "planned" types of urban form. These societies had elaborate
religious, political, and military hierarchies. Precincts devoted to the
activities of the elite were often highly planned and regular in form. In
contrast, residential areas often grew by a slow process of accretion,
producing the complex, irregular patterns that we term "organic." Two
typical features of the ancient city are the wall and the citadel: the wall
for defense in regions preiodically swept by conquering armies, and the
citadel - a large, elevated precinct within the city - devoted to religious
and state functions.
The Romans engaged in extensive city-building activities as they consolidated
their empire. Rome itself displayed the informal complexity created by
centuries of organic growth, although particluar temple and public districts
were highly planned. In contrast, the Roman military and colonial towns
were laid out in a variation of the grid. Many European cities, including
London and Paris, sprang from these Roman origins.
We usually associate medieval cities with narrow winding streets converging
on a market square with a cathedral and a city hall. Many cities of this
period display this pattern, the product of thousands of incremental
additions to the urban fabric. However, new towns seeded throughout
undeveloped regions of Europe were based upon the familiar grid. In either
case, large encircling walls were built for defense against marauding
armies; new walls enclosing more land were built as the city expanded and
outgrew its former container.
During the Renaissance, architects began to systematically study the
shaping of urban space, as though the city itself were a piece of
architecture which could be given an aesthetically pleasing and functional
order. Many of the great public spaces of Rome and other Italian cities
date from this era. Parts of old cities were rebuilt to create elegant
squares, long street vistas, and symmetrical building arrangements.
Responding to advances in firearms during the fifteenth century, new city
walls were designed with large earthworks to deflect artillery, and star-shaped
points to provide defenders with sweeping lines of fire. Spanish colonial
cities in the New World were built according to rules codified in the Laws
of the Indies of 1573, specifying an orderly grid of streets with a central
plaza, defensive wall, and uniform building style.
We associate the baroque city with the emergence of great nation-states
between 1600 and 1750. Ambitious monarchs constructed new palaces, courts,
and bureaucratic offices. The grand scale was sought in urban public
spaces: long avenues, radial street networks, monumental squares, geometric
parks and gardens. Versailles is a clear expression of this city-building
model; Washington, D.C. is an example from the United States. Baroque
principles of urban design were used by Baron Haussmann in his celebrated
restructuring of Paris between 1853 and 1870. Haussmann carved broad new
thoroughfares through the tangled web of old Parisian streets, linking
major subcenters of the city with one another in a pattern which has served
as a model for many other modernization plans.
Toward the latter half of the eighteenth century, particularly in America,
the city as a setting for commerce assumed primacy. The buildings of the
bourgeoisie expanded along with their owners' prosperity: banks, office
buildings, warehouses, hotels, and small factories. New towns founded
during this period were conceived as commercial enterprises, and the
neutral grid was the most effective means to divide land up into parcels
for sale. The city became a checkerboard on which players speculated on
shifting land values. No longer would religious, political, and cultural
imperatives shape urban development; rather, the market would be allowed to
determine the pattern of urban growth. New York, Philadelphia, and Boston
around 1820 exemplify the commercial city of this era, with their bustling,
mixed-use waterfront districts.
TRANSITION TO THE INDUSTRIAL CITY
Cities have changed more since the Industrial Revolution than in all the
previous centuries of their existence. New York had a population of about
313,000 in 1840 but had reached 4,767,000 in 1910. Chicago exploded from
4,000 to 2,185,000 in the same period. Millions of rural dwellers ni longer
needed on farms flocked to the cities, where new factories churned out
products for new markets made accessible by railroads and steamships. In
the United States, millions of immigrants from Europe swelled the urban
populations. Increasingly, urban economies were being woven tightly into
the national and international economies.
Technological innovations poured fortrh, many with profound impacts on
urban form. Railroad tracks were driven into the heart of the city.
Internal rail transportation systems greatly expanded the radius of urban
settlement: horsecars beginning in the 1830s, cable cars in the 1870s, and
electric trolleys in the 1880s. In the 1880s, the first central power
plants began providing electrical power to urban areas. The rapid
communication provided by the telegraph and telephone allowed formerly
concentrated urban activities to disperse across a wider field.
The industrial city still focused on the city center, which contained both
the central business district, defined by large office buildings, and
substantial numbers of factory and warehouse structures. Both trolleys and
railroad systems converged on the center of the city, which boasted the
premier entertainment and shopping establishments. The working class lived
in crowded districts close to the city center, near their places of
Early American factories were located outside of major cities along rivers
which provided water power for machinery. After steam power became widely
available in the 1830s, factories could be located within the city in
proximity to port facilities, rail lines, and the urban labor force. Large
manufacturing zones emerged within the major northeastern and midwestern
cities such as Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Cleveland. But by the late
nineteenth century, factory decentralization had already begun, as
manufacturers sought larger parcels of land away from the congestion of the
city. Gary, Indiana, for example, was founded in 1906 on the southern shore
of Lake Michigan by the United States Steel Company.
The increeasing crowding, pollution, and disease in the central city
produced a growing desire to escape to a healthier environment in the
suburbs. The upper classes had always been able to retreat to homes in the
countryside. Beginning in the 1830s, commuter railroadsenabled the middle
class to commmute in to the city center. Horsecar lines were built in many
cities between the 1830s and 1880s, allowing the middle class to move out
from the central cities into more spacious suburbs. Finally, during the
1890s electric trollrys and elevated rapid transit lines proliferated,
providing cheap urban transportation for the majority of the population.
The central business district o fthe city underwent a radical transformation
with the development of the skyscraper between 1870 and 1900. These tall
buildings were not technically feasible until the invention of the elevator
and steel-frame construction methods. Skyscrapers reflect the dynamics of
the real estate market; the tall building
extracts the maximum economic value from a parcel of land. These office
buildings housed the growing numbers of white-collar employees in banking,
finance, management, and business services, all manifestations of the shift
from an economy of small firms to one of large corporations.
THE FORM OF THE MODERN CITY OIN THE AGE OF THE AUTOMOBILE
The city of today may be divided into two parts:(1) an inner zone,
coextensive with the boundaries of the old industrial city, and (2)suburban
areas, dating from the 1920s, which have been designed for the sutomobile
from the beginning.
The central business districts of American cities have become centers of
information processing, finance, and administration rather than manufacturing.
White-collar amployees in these economic sectors commute in from the
suburbs on a network of urban freeways built during the 1950s and 60s; this
"hub-and-wheel" freeway pattern can be observed on many city maps. New
bridges have spanned rivers and bays, as in New York and San Fransisco,
linking together formerly separate cities into vast urbanized regions.
Waves of demolition and rebuilding have produced "Manhattanized" downtowns
across the land. During the 1950s and 60s, urban renewal programs cleared
away large areas of the old city, releasing the land for new office
buildings, convention centers, hotels, and sports complexes. Building
surges have converted the downtowns of American cities into forests of tall
office buildings. More recently, office functions not requiring a downtown
location have been moved to huge office parks in the suburbs.
Surrounding the central business area lies a large band of old mixed-use
and residential buildings which house the urban poor. High crime, low
income, deteriorating services, inadequate housing, and intractable social
problems plague these neglected areas of urban America. The manufacturing
jobs formerly available to inner city residents are no longer there, and
resources have not been committed to replace them.
These inner city areas have been left behind by a massive migration to the
suburbs, which began in the late nineteenth century but accelerated in the
1920s with the spread of the automobile. Freeway building after World War
II opened up even larger areas of suburban land, which were quickly filled
by people fleeing central city decline. Today, more people live in suburbs
than in cities proper. Manufacturers have also moved their production
facilities to suburban locations which have freeway and rail accessibility.
INdeed, we have reached a new stage of urbanizatin beyond the metropolis.
Most major cities are no longer focused exclusively on the traditional
downtown. New subcenters have arisen round the periphery, and these
subcenters supply most of the daily needs of their adjacent populations.
The old metropolis has become a multi-centered urban region. In turn, many
of these urban regiosn have expanded to the point where they have coalesced
into vast belts of urbanization - what the geographer Jean Gottman termed
"megalopolis." The prime example is the eastern
seaboard of the United States from Boston to Washington. The planner C.A.
Doxiadis has speculated that similar vast corridors of urbanization will
appear throughout the world during the next century. Thus far, American
planners have not had much success in imposing a rational form on this
process. However, New Town and greenbelt programs in Britain and the
Scandinavian countries have, to some extent, prevented formless sprawl from
engulfing the countryside.
THE ECONOMICS OF URBAMN AREAS
Since the 1950s, city planners have increasingly paid attention to the
economics of urban areas. When many American cities experienced fiscal
crises during the 1970s, urban financial management assumed even greater
importance. Today, planners routinely assess the economic consequences of
all major changes in the form of the city.
Several basic concepts underlie urban and regional economic analysis.
First, cities cannot grow if their residents simply provide services for
one another. The city must create products which can be sold to an external
purchaser, bringing in money which can be reinvested in new production
facilities and raw materials. This "economic base" of production for
external markets is crucial. Without it, the economic engine of the city
grinds to a halt.
Once the economic base is established, an elaborate internal market can
evolve. This market includes the production of goods and sevrices for
businesses and residents within the city. Obviously, a large part of the
city's physical plant is devoted to facilities for these internal
transactions: retail stores of all kinds, restaurants, local professional
services, and so on.
Modern cities are increasingly engaged in a competition for economic
resources such as industrial plants, corporate headquarters, high-technology
firms, and government facilities. Cities try to lure investment with an
array of features: low tax rates, improved transportation and utility
infrastructure, cheap land, and a skilled labor force. Amenities such as
climate, proximity to recreation, parks, elegant architecture, and cultural
sctivities influence the location decisions of businesses and individuals.
Many older cities have had difficulty surviving in this new economic game.
Abandoned by traditional industries, they are now trying to create a new
economic base involving growth sectors such as high technology.
Today, cities no longer compete in mere regional or national markets: the
market is an international one. Multinational firms close plants in Chicago
or Detroit and build replacements in Asia or Latin America. Foreign
products dominate whole sectors of the American consumer goods market. Huge
sums of money shift around the globe in instantaneous electronic
transactions. Cities must struggle for survival in a volatile environment
in which the rules are always changing. This makes city planning even more
challenging than before.
MODERN CITY PLANNING
Modern city planning can be divided into two distinct but related types of
planning. Visionary city planning proposes radical changes in the form of
the city, often in conjunction with sweeping changes in the social and
economic order. Institutionalized city planning is lodged withing the
existing structures of government, and modifies urban growth processes in
moderate, pragmatic ways. It is constrained by the prevailing alignment of
political and economic forces within the city.
VISIONARY OR UTOPIAN CITY PLANNING
People have imagined ideal cities for millenia. Plato's Republic was an
ideal city, although lacking in the spatial detail of later schemes.
Renaissance architects designed numerous geometric cities, and ever since
architects have been the chief source of imaginative urban proposals. In
the twentieth century, Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Paolo Soleri, and
dozens of other architects have designed cities on paper. Although few have
been realized in pure form, they have influenced the layout of many new
towns and urban redevelopment projects.
In his "Contemporary City for Three Million People" of 1922 and "Radiant
City" of 1935, Le Corbusier advocated a high-density urban alternative,
with skyscraper office buildings and midrise apartments placed within
park-like open spaces. Different land uses were located in separate
districts, forming a rigid geometrical pattern with a sophisticated system
of superhighways and rail transit.
Frank Lloyd Wright envisioned a decentralized low-density city in keeping
with his distaste for large cities and belief in frontier individualism.
The Broadacre City plan of 1935 is a large grid of arterials spread across
the counrtyside, with most of the internal space devoted to single-family
homes on large lots. Areas are also carefully set aside for small farms,
light industry, orchards, recreation areas, and other urbanfacilities. A
network of superhighways knits the region together, so spatially dispersed
facilities are actually very close in terms of travel time. In many ways,
Wright's Broadacre City resembles American suburban and exurban
developments of the post-WWII period.
Many other utopian plans could be catalogued, but the point is that
planners and architects have generated a complex array of urban patterns
from which to draw ideas and inspiration. Most city planners, however, do
not work on a blank canvas; they can only make incremental changes to an
urban scene already shaped by a complicated historical process.
INSTITUTIONALIZED CITY PLANNING
The form of the city is determined primarily by thousands of private
decisions to construct buildings, within a framework of public
infrastructure and regulations administered by city, state, and federal
governments. City planning actions can have enormous impact on land values.
From the point of view of land economics, the city is an enormous playing
field on which thousands of competitors struggle to capture value by
constructing or trading land or buildings. The goal of city planning is to
intervene in this game in oeder to protect widely shared public values such
as health, safety, environmental quality, social equity, and aesthetics.
The roots of American city planning lie in an array of reform efforts of
the late nineteenth century: the Parks movement, the City Beautiful
movement, campaigns for housing regulations, the Progressive movement for
government reform, and efforts to improve public health through the
provision of sanitary sewers and clean water supplies. The First National
Conference on City Planning occurred in 1909, the same year as Daniel
Burnham's famous Plan of Chicago. That date may be used to mark the
inauguration of the new profession. The early city planners actually came
from diverse backgrounds such as landscape architecture, architecture,
engineering, and law, but they shared a common desire to produce a more
orderly urban pattern.
The zoning of land bacame, and still is, the most potent instrument
available to American city planners for controlling urban development.
Zoning is basically the dividing of the city into discrete areas within
which only certain land uses and types of buildings can be constructed. The
rationale is that certain activities or building types don't work well;
factories and homes, for example. Illogical mixtures create nuisances for
the parties involved and lower land values. After several decades of
gradual development, land-use zoning received legal approval from the
Supreme Court in 1926.
Zoning isn't the same as planning: it is a legal tool for the implementation
of plans. Zoning should be closely inntegrated with a Master Plan or
Comprehensive Plan which spells out a logical path for the city's future in
areas such as land use, transportation, parks and recreation, environmental
quality, and public works construction. In the early days of zoning this
was often neglected, but this lack of coordination between zoning and
planning is less common now.
Two other important elements of existing city planning are subdivision
regulations and environmental regulations. Subdivision regulations require
that land being subdivided for development be provided with adequate
streets, sewers, water, schools, utilities, and various design features.
The goal is to prevent shabby, deficient developments which produce
headaches for both their residents and the city. Since the late 1960s,
environmental regulations have exerted a stronger influence on patterns of
urban growth by restricting development in floodplains, on unstable slopes,
on earthquake faults, or near sensitive natural areas. Businesses have been
forced to reduce smoke emissions and the disposal of wastes have been more
closely monitored. Overall, the pace of environmental degradation has been
slowed, but certainly not stopped, and a dismaying backlog of environmental
hazards remains to be cleaned up. City planners have plenty of work to do
as we move into the twenty-
CONCLUSION: GOOD CITY FORM
What is the good city? We are unlikely to arrive at an unequivocal answer;
the diversity of human needs and tastes frustrates all attempts to provide
recipes or instruction manuals for the building of cities. However, we can
identify the crucial dimensions of city performance, and specify the many
ways in which cities can achieve success along with these dimensions.
A most useful guide is Kevin Lynch's A THEORY OF GOOD CITY FORM (Cambridge,
Mass. MIT Press, 1981). Lynch offers five basic dimensions of city
performance: vitality, sense, fit, access, and control. To these he adds
two "meta-criteria," efficiency and justice.
For Lynch, a vital city successfully fills the biological needs of its
inhabitants, and provides a safe environment for their activities. A
sensible city is organized so that its residents can perceive and
understand the city's form and function. A city with good fit provides the
buildings, spaces, and networks required for its residents to pursue their
projects successfully. An accessible city allows people of all ages and
backgrounds to gain the activities, resources, services, and information
that they need. A city with good control is arranged so that its citizens
can have a say in the management of the spaces in which they work and
Finally, an efficient city achieves the goals listed above at the least
cost, and balances the achievement of the goals with one another. They
cannot all be maximized at the same time. And a just city distributes
benefits among its citizens according to some fair standard. Clearly, these
two meta-criteria raise difficult issues which will continue to spark
debates for the forseeable future.
These criteria tell aspiring city builders where to aim, while
acknowledging the diverse ways of achieving good city form. Cities are
endlessly fascinating because each is unique, the product of decades,
centuries, or even millennia or historical evolution. As we walk through
city streets, we walk through time, encountering the city-building legacy
of past generations. Paris, Venice, Rome, New York, Chicago, San
Francisco--each has its glories and its failures. In theory, we should be
able to learn the lessons of history and build cities that our descendants
will admire and wish to preserve. That remains a constant challenge for all
who undertake the task of city planning.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
Boyer, R. and D. Savageau. Places Rated Almanac. Chicago: Rand McNally &
Choay, Francoise. The Modern City: planning in the 19th century. New York:
George Braziller, 1969.
Clark, David. Urban Geography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University
Clay, Grady. Close-Up, how to read the american city. Chicago: The
UNiversity of Chicago Press, 1986.
Gallion, A. and S. Eisner. The Urban Pattern. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company, 1986.
Greenburg, M., D. Kueckeberg, and C. Michaelson. Local Population and
Employment Projection Techniques. New Brunswick: Center for Urban Policy
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York:
Vintage Books, 1961.
Kueckeberg, Donald. Urban Planning Analysis; methods and models. New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 1974.
Callenbach, Ernest. Ecotopia. Berkeley:Banyan Tree Books, 1975.
Hoskin, Frank P. The Language of Cities. Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing
Company, Inc., 1972.
Le Corbusier. The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc, 1987.
Planning (The magazine of the American Planning Association)
1313 60th St., Chicago IL 60637
RELATED READING FOR CHILDREN
Burton, Virginia Lee. The Little House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942
Murphy, Shirley, and Murphy, Pat. Mrs. Torrino's Return to the Sun. Shepard
Dr. Seuss. The Lorax. New York: Random House, 1971.
Macaulay, David. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1974.
Macaulay, David. Underground. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Barker, Albert. From Settlement to City. New York: Julian Messner, 1978.
Eichner, James A. The First Book of Lacal Government. New York: Franklin
Rhodes, Dorothy. How to Read a City Map. Chicago: Elk Grove Press, 1967.
Monroe, Roxie. Architects Make Zigzags: Looking at Architecture from A to Z.
Washington D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1986.
For more information on city planning and related subjects, contact:
American Planning Association
Planners Bookstore 1313 E. 60th St.
Chicago IL 60637
SIMCITY USER REFERENCE
are affected by
A B C D E F G H I J K
Residential Population + + + +
Commercial Population + + + +
Industrial Population + + + + +
Population Density +
Traffic + + -
Pollution - - -
Crime - -
Land Value + - + +
Proximity to City Center +
Tax Rate + - - - -
Unemployment + -
Sea Port +
Police Departments + -
Fire Departments +
Mass Transit +
A: Maintenance Funding
B: Taxes Collected
C: Land Value
F: Traffic Density
G: Industrial Population
H: Commercial Population
I: Residential Population
J: Overall City Score
+ Positive effect
- Negative effect
SIMCIY ZONE EVOLUTION
Zones in SimCtiy evolve and devolve according to many factors, as charted
RESIDENTIAL ZONES grow from empty to single family housing, and then on to
four levels of density and four levels of land value. Residential zones
can also become churches and hospitals.
COMMERCIAL ZONES gorw from empty "free zones" to five levels of density
and four levels of land value.
INDUSTRIAL ZONES grow from empty "free zones" to four levels of density
and two levels of land value.
Included on your SimCity disk is a program called ZONE EVOLUTION. This
program displays a window containing a chart of the zone evolution in
Double Click on the ZONE EVOLUTION Icon before you begin SimCity, and the
chart will be available in a window during the game.
Typed by the DOXTOR August 17-21, 1989