The battle arena is a rectangular region with an underlying hexagonal
grid structure. The game system uses this grid for the calculation of
distances determining firing ranges and movement capabilities for each
piece. There are also different types and levels of terrain that
affect combat, visibility and movement.
A game consists of a set number of turns with each turn incorporating
a sequence of phases. Each phase alternates between the attacker and
defender. However, a commander must be attentive even when his
opponent is in control. One army's forces may respond to the actions
of the opposition even during the opponents turn.
During each turn, each piece may fire once and move. The distance a
specific unit may move within a single turn varies. This depends on
the type of piece, the terrain, and weather conditions. The firing
range and degree of damage inflicted depend on the weapon fired, the
target type, and the terrain.
The included scenarios vary from small infantry vs infantry to large
island invasion situations. Also found are such diverse scenarios as
desert conflict to heavily forested engagements.
The challenges to become `The Perfect General' are multi-facetted.
First you must master the selection and strategic placement of your
combat units. Combined is the optimal maneuvering (tactics) in
response to the actions of your opponent. The second challenge is the
mastering and manipulation of each scenario to find the best decisions
for each role (attacker and defender). You must make specific critical
decisions. Which beach is the best for invasion? What's the most
efficient way to cross a certain river, or to take and hold an
important town? How can you manage the destruction of your opponent's
spotters on top of a hill?
The selection of your units is extremely important. These combat units
will have different firing ranges and strengths. For example, armored
cars will have a range of six when firing at enemy armored cars.
However, the effective range is reduced to one when firing at an enemy
medium tank. A heavy tank, however, has a maximum ranges of eight to
thirteen depending on its target. Direct fire can only be taken at
what can be seen directly. Blocking terrain such as hills, woods and
towns may prevent you from firing on an enemy unit.
There are situations where an unseen enemy unit may fire at one of
your units. You may ambush your opponent the same way.
As in most conflict situations, your goal is to take geography, which
in this game is usually measured by the taking and holding of as many
towns as you can. Normally, each town has a specific point value in a
scenario. When a player controls this town at the end of a turn, he
will receive these points. The cumulative victory points at the end of
the game produce the players final evaluation.
You may play any of the scenarios as either the attacker or defender.
However, a scenario may not be balanced. The true test of play is the
Match Game. A Match game is a series of two games played with the same
scenario. First, you fight the battle as the attacker, then repeat the
game as the defender. This allows for an evenly balanced evaluation of
your playing skills.
In addition to playing either attacker, defender or a full match, you
may determine which rules to use. You may select whether combat fire
will damage a unit or destroy it when hit (`Full Kill' and `Partial
Kill' rules). You also may choose whether a shot fired at an enemy
unit always hits the target if in range or has the chance of randomly
missing (`Always Hit' and `Random Hit' rules).
Any single scenario will provide opportunities for virtually thousands
of strategies. Depending on what types of combat forces you choose and
where you place them, the same scenario will provide a totally
As simple as this game is, you can re-create most strategic and
tactical situations that might happen in real combat.
INSTALLING "THE PERFECT GENERAL"
The Perfect General comes on disk in a compressed format. As a result,
one cannot play the game directly from the distribution disk. You must
install the game before play. You can install the game to either
separate floppy disks or a hard disk. Please refer to the
machine-specific insert for complete installation instructions.
Amiga Owners: Load The game from WorkBench! And click on the icons!
GENERAL INTERFACE COMMENTS
The design of The Perfect General allows use of the mouse, keyboard or
joystick. If you have a joystick and no mouse, you can use the
joystick to simulate the actions of the mouse. Used in this manner,
references in this manual made to the mouse also applies to the
joystick. With both a mouse and a joystick present, the latter
provides a good solution for a two-player game. This allows the
Passive Commander using the joystick to easily signal Return Fire or
Passing Fire. Thus preventing a physical battle over the key locations
on the keyboard.
There are four major means of communication with the game:
You will use screen buttons to select specific items. They appear as
raised rectangles when not selected and indented when selected. A
button is selected by moving the mouse pointer over the button and
then pressing the left selector (left mouse button or fire joystick
button). Each button also will have a letter on the label highlighted.
Pressing the indicated key on the keyboard also will select the
Requesters are small windows that pop-up to inform you of some useful
information. They also may request information from you. (Requesters
are also called dialogues.) Normally, there will be one or more
buttons on the requester from which you can answer the question or
acknowledge the message. To respond to the requester, simply select
the proper button. Note there is frequently a `default' answer shown
by a thicker button. This button is selectable by pressing the <ENTER>
key on the keyboard, as well as the standard selection procedure.
Menus are a series of buttons in a list showing you the various commands
you have available. During game play, the primary menu will be
available, although not seen. To bring up the menu, use the "Primary
Menu" key (<F1>)
From the keyboard. Using a mouse (or joystick), a single-click of the
RIGHT mouse button (or second joystick button) will display the menu.
IMPORTANT: If you position the mouse within the large Battle Window,
the right mouse button has a different use. It will not cause the
primary menu to appear. Move the mouse pointer outside the boundary of
the Battle Window before clicking to bring up the menu."
Many of the menu commands have an associated "hot key" that allows
access to the menu command without first showing the menu. The hot key
for each menu item (if available) is shown on the right edge of the
menu item enclosed in square brackets.
Note that you can move the menu on the screen. Using the mouse, select
the title of the menu and, holding the left button down, drag it to
the desired location. Alternately, the <Shift><Arrow> keys on the
keyboard also will move the menu.
To exit the menu without selecting an item, move the mouse pointer
outside the menu display and click the RIGHT mouse button.
Alternately, use the <ESCape> key on the keyboard.
Sliders are used to change values within a range. There are three
portions to the slider. The slider bar, the track and the direction
buttons. To use the mouse to change the value, press and hold down the
left button over the slider bar, and drag the slider to the desired
position. Select the direction buttons to change the value by 1 in
that direction. Select the track to change the value by a larger jump
(the exact amount varies from slider to slider).
The slider also is controllable from the keyboard. Each slider has two
keys associated with it. Pressing these keys will act the same as
selecting the direction arrows. Pressing the key with the shift key
has the effect of selecting the track (i.e. a big jump).
Battle Map Location Selection.
During the game, many times it is desirable to select a location on
the map, or the unit in a location. For example, at times you will
have to choose where to fire a shot or move a unit. To select a
location with the mouse, move the mouse pointer to the desired
location, and press the left selector. The target cursor (the white
cursor) will then move to that location and select the unit (for fire)
or location (for inovernent) there. Alternately, this can be done
using the keyboard. Use the arrow keys (or numeric keypad) to move the
cursor and the <ENTER> key to select the location.
You select a new active unit or examine a map location by moving the
target cursor to that location. To move the target cursor move the
mouse pointer to the location and press the RIGHT selector. If there
is a selectable unit at that location, the unit will become active.
Otherwise, the target cursor will move to the location, and display
information about the location. With the keyboard, move the target
cursor to the target location using the arrow keys, or the numeric
keypad. To select a unit, use the <S> key with the cursor positioned
on the unit.
Your 'Perfect General' Security System:
To protect your `Perfect General' game against unauthorized use, a
security system has been instailed. This appears after selecting an
option on the initial game options screen and requires you to enter a
certain word obtained from this manual, per the instructions given
on your screen.
GETTING INTO THE GAME
There are three ways of learning the ins-and-outs of The Perfect General:
1 The "academic" approach - reading thoroughly through this manual
and trying a game as you read.
2.The "quick and dirty" approach - Start the game and poke around. A
lot of thought went into designing the interface and game mechanics
to be very intuitive and simple. This includes the use of pop up
menus, easy mouse and keyboard commands, and an on-line help
facility. (NOTE: We still recommend that you take the time at some
point to read this manual. It is easy to miss some of the game's fine
points in the initial excitement of battle.)
3.The "I'll make you a deal approach" - Work with the "quick run through"
that follows. If you go through this several times it should get you through
most of what this game is all about.
A QUICK RUN THROUGH (TUTORIAL)
If you haven't already done so, set your hardware configuration to
conform to your equipment and start up the game.
At the game start menu, select the NEW GAME - ONE COMPUTER option.
(Point and click with your left mouse button or hit the <0> key.)
At this point, you must pass a security check (there are spies
everywhere!). Enter the requested word from the manual, and then let
us continue. This will bring you to the scenario selection screen.
Displayed are the various scenarios available to us. So we now need to
choose the game to play. Select the scenario entitled "A Simple Little
War". (Use the mouse arrow and left mouse button to select this
scenario. With the keyboard, use the <Down Arrow> and <Up Arrow> keys
to move the highlight to this item.)
Select the button that says LONG DESCRIPTION (Mouse in screen button
or <L> from the keyboard). This will show you a brief overview of the
scenario you are about to play. Read the description and then select
"Exit" to return to the scenario selection screen.
Next select the SHOW MAP button, and this scenario's Reconnaissance
Map (showing the entire battlefield) will appear. Strike any key or
mouse button to exit this map.
Select the SCENARIO RULES button, and the rules options will appear.
This manual will explain these options later, but for now, select the
PLAYER 1 ATTACKER button and the PARTIAL KILL BUTTON. Leave all the
other settings as they are. Next, at the bottom of the screen, select
the USE button. This will take you back to the selection screen.
Now select the PLAY THIS SCENARIO button (<P> key). This will trigger
the `Type of Game' menu. Select 'Person vs Computer'.
The game now asks for your name.Type the name of your choice and press <ENTER>
Next, the game asks you to select the level of your computer opponent.
For this quick run-through, select LEVEL 1. The name of your worthy
opponent will be displayed. Select OK to continue.
The unit selection screen appears next. This screen contains a series
of buttons, with the names of the available unit types. The cost and
the number of each type that you have purchased are also shown. Using
the keyboard, you can use the <Up Arrow> and <Down Arrow> keys to
choose a unit type. An indented button will show the selected type.
The <Left> and <Right> arrow keys decrement or increment the number of
units purchased. Using the mouse, you can point to the desired Unit
Name button to select it. Use the left mouse button to increase the
number chosen or right mouse button to decrease the number. With this
as your guide, select the following:
1 Armored Car,
1 Medium Tank,
1 Heavy Tank,
1 Mobile Artillery,
1 Light Artillery,
1 Heavy Artillery, and
After you have picked these units (one of everything except Light
Tanks), you will have 70 buy points remaining. Remember that this is
only a quick run through. You may not last the entire 7 turns. So
don't worry about the measly 70 little points.
Now select the DONE button. At this point, a small requester will remind
you that you did not use all of your buy points. This is a "fail-safe"
measure to insure that you exited the unit selection on purpose. In this
case since we
have chosen to take this action, select the `Yes i'm done' button. You
will now proceed to actually placing the units that you have just
purchased onto the battlefield.
To place a unit, select any location within your start-up region. This
is done, with the mouse, by clicking the left mouse button on a
location. With the keyboard, move the cursor with the arrow keys and
press <ENTER>). This will place a unit (the unit type highlighted in
the lower right corner) onto the playing field. Your start-up region is
anywhere south of the red line on the playing field.
You may select a different unit type for placement. In the lower right
hand corner of the screen is the units placement pool box. Click on the
proper unit with the left mouse button to select that type. With the
keyboard, select the "Next Unit Type" from the primary menu. Remember
that <F1> will show you the menu when needed. Note also that the "Next
Unit Type" has a corresponding Hot-Key - the <N> key.
If you desire to pick up a unit already placed, just select the unit
again. The unit will return to the placement pool, clearing that battle
For demonstration purposes place your units according to the following
Place 1 Heavy Tank on the road at the extreme west (left) of the
battlefield just below the bridge. This road leads to Konigsberg.
(The names of the towns are on the maps in the back of this manual.
The recon map also will display them upon request.)
Place 1 Medium Tank directly below (south of) the Heavy Tank on the same
Place 1 Armored Car directly south of the Medium Tank on the same road.
Place 1 Infantry in the town of Pinsk. This unit will (as would any
other unit) earn you the victory points for that town. You will earn
these points at the end of each turn.
Place 1 Mobile Artillery on the next road in from the left leading
to Konigsberg. This should be next to the bridge.
Place 1 Engineer north of the Mobile Artillery along the river.
Place 1 Bazooka to the east (right) of the Engineer also along the river.
Place 1 Light Artillery and 1 Heavy Artillery south of the Bazooka
and Engineer near the road.
Place 1 Mine on the road just north of Moscow.
With this little setup we have left the whole right side of the
playing field wide open except one lonely mine field. This may not be
the best of strategies. However, you are only going to play a couple
of turns to get your feet wet.
After placing that last piece (the Mine) a requester will appear
stating `All of your units have been placed'. Select YES to continue.
There will be a small delay while your computer opponent places his
Now it's time to begin the battle!
The first game phase is Mobile Artillery Plot. After both commanders
have plotted their mobiles, the next phase will actually fire these
Select the target of your choice. With the mouse, point and click with
the left button. Alternately, move the target cursor with the keypad and
use the <ENTER> key. This target could be another enemy unit, a town or
woods with a suspected ambush, or possibly a bridge you may want to
destroy to hinder your enemy's movement. During this phase, the map will
display some locations as shaded. The shading shows those locations that
you cannot target.
The rules for indirect fire are simple. A map location must be within
the range of the firing unit. It also must be within the line-of-sight
of at least one of that side's units. The rules do not require that
the firing artillery unit can directly see the target.
In this case go for the town of Konigsberg. Mobile artillery is much
less accurate than regular artillery and your shot may drift and land
Once both sides have plotted their Mobile Artillery shots, the
artillery fire phase will then execute. This is where we get to see the
effectiveness of our targeting.
The next phase is regular artillery plotting phase. There are several
differences here from the mobile artillery plot phase. First, the
artillery will not actually fire until the next turn (during artillery
fire phase). Second, you have the option of firing barrage or
non-barrage. With barrage the shot will remain on the field for one
full turn interfering with movement. Non-barrage will hit, take damage
Plot your light and heavy artillery in the front edge of the woods
northeast of Konigsberg. This is an attempt to soften any ambush your
opponent may have awaiting you.
Once both commanders have plotted their artillery, the game will
proceed to the first (of 10) direct fire phases. You can now give
Direct Fire orders to any of your units for which there is a sighted
opposing unit within range. The game will cycle through the eligible
units one at a time, prompting for the desired target. The unit
(yellow) cursor will highlight the unit for which a fire order is
possible. The target (white) cursor will automatically highlight the
target with the highest chance of success. NOTE: If none of your units
have a valid target available, the game will quickly cycle through this
phase without prompting you for any orders. There are no orders to be
Before we actually give your units their orders, let's take a quick
look around to see what is available.
Here you will have several options available to aid your
decision-making process. First, you can cycle through all valid targets
by pressing the SPACE bar on the keyboard. This causes the target
cursor to move to the next available target. Notice that the
probability of the shot being successful will be shown in the Target
Information Box - the white window at the lower-right of the screen. If
you press the space bar and the target cursor does NOT move, this shows
there is only one valid target available.
You can directly inquire about the chance of hitting a specific enemy
unit by moving the target cursor to that unit. Either use the keypad and
arrow keys or point the mouse arrow at the desired target and click the
A fire order may be given by directly selecting an opposing unit (with
the left mouse button or the arrow keys and 'ENTER>).
Although the game system will cycle through all eligible units, you can
give the fire commands in any order you wish. You may select another of
your units for firing. Move the target cursor over the desired unit and
issue the SELECT command (Hot-Key `S'). Alternately, point the mouse at
your unit and click with the RIGHT button.
Since you are not required to fire a unit during this phase, you can
select the "Ignore Unit this Phase" command (Hot-Key <1>). This will
cause the unit to save the one Direct Fire allowed per turn for later.
You can temporarily hold the fire for a unit as well with the "Next
Unit" command (Hot-Key <N>). This will cause the game to cycle to the
next eligible unit, but still leave the old unit eligible.
As always, there are other command options available, but don't worry
about remembering them all. By bringing up the primary menu, you will have
access to all of the currently available commands. Display the menu
with either the <F1> key or by clicking the right mouse button with
the pointer outside the main Battle Window. You will see an array of
choices from which to choose. Try any of these by just selecting the
menu item. Choosing Display Control or Game Control will bring up
another menu of options. Experiment with these choices as they can
interesting as well as useful during the game play.
During direct fire, one must always be aware of the chance of RETURN
FIRE. When a unit receives direct fire, it may have the option of
taking a direct fire shot in return. This may be its last gasp before
its possible demise. It must not have fired during this turn. It also
must have a valid, in-range target at which to fire. If both conditions
are true, the owner can order RETURN FIRE. When one of your units is
receiving fire, you should be ready to request RETURN FIRE when
possible. On the right side of the battle display is a small box with
the letter "F" in it. This box will light (green) when return fire is
possible. You should give the order while this indicator is on. The
return fire order is given by pressing either mouse button, or with the
keyboard Hot-Key <F>.
Continuing with our walk-through, fire all of your units that have a shot
available. As you fire little yellow indicators will appear on the unit
that has just fired. These markers show that a unit has fired this turn.
Remember that each unit can fire only once during a turn. We use this
indicator as a reminder as to which units for both sides have fired. Be
aware that a unit at which you are firing may choose to take RETURN FIRE.
He may target any of your units within his range. You may have the option
to take RETURN FIRE for that unit.
When you have finished firing your units your opponent will then fire some
or all of his units, including those in ambush. You should pay attention,
ready to give the RETURN FIRE order if available and desired.
If you are thinking that this is complicated, it isn't. One or two of these
practice games and it will become very clear.
After both sides have completed their first direct fire phase, you will
proceed to the Inovernent phase. The basic controls here are the same as
during direct fire. Remember that the MENU is available and will show you
the various available options. The target cursor will specify the
destination of the move. Simply select the location to which you want
to move. Point and click with the LEFT button, using the mouse. From the
keyboard, move the cursor and press <ENTER> to select. The game
automatically uses `smart moves'. The unit will take the fastest path to
Be careful when moving near an unfired enemy unit within range. There is
a chance that he may take PASSING FIRE at you. Note that you do not have
the option of ordering RETURN FIRE during movement. When your opponent's
units are moving, you will have the same opportunity. The "F" indicator
(on the right of the screen) lights when you have the option of taking
PASSING FIRE. Give this order by clicking either mouse button or using the
Hot-Key <F>. You then can select the unit to fire at the moving unit.
Continuing, let's move on Konigsberg. If your Mobile Artillery shot scored
a direct hit on the town, you can walk right in. The two bridges between
your units and the city provide your direct path. If your opponent's Mobile
Artillery did damage the bridge, you will have to find an alternate path.
If that did occur, then move your Engineer right into the river. Next turn
you can order the engineer to build a bridge in that location.
On your way to the town of Konigsberg, there may be enemy units in the
way. You will have the option to engage in close assault. Unfired
Armored Cars or Tanks can execute a close assault order. Mobile
Artillery and other unit types cannot perform close assault, however.
This order is given by ordering your unit to move onto a location
occupied by an enemy unit. When a close assault engagement occurs,
only one side will survive. This is risky, but sometimes necessary to
secure that town or to get control of that key position.
During the movement phase you may move all of your units, so go ahead
and move everything forward. Your opponent may take PASSING FIRE at
you as you are moving.
After you have moved or `ignored' all of your forces the computer
opponent will start to move his forces. While his units are moving,
you should keep an eye on the "Passing Fire Available" indicator, Make
sure you prepare to give the PASSING FIRE order. (Either mouse button
or the <F> key requests PASSING FIRE.) Sometimes it is a good strategy
to take the `passing fire' because he may be running for cover.
Following the completion of the movement phase, you will proceed with
the second direct fire phase. Any units that have not fired yet during
this turn are eligible to fire. If they fired during the first direct
fire phase or took RETURN fire, they have used their one shot. Also,
firing at an enemy unit when moving, or engaging in close assault
disallows their participation in this phase. All eligible units who
have a legitimate target can fire. This will be the last opportunity
to fire during this turn. It is usually advisable to fire all
When you have exhausted your firing wishes, your opponent will do his
firing. Again, when your opponent is firing be ready to order RETURN
FIRE, if available.
The last phase is the score keeping. All cities now occupied by
unit(s) from only one side will have their associated victory points
awarded to that commander. The game will then proceed to the next
turn, cycling through the same sequence of phases. Reinforcement
purchase and placement (where applicable), Mobile Artillery Plot,
Artillery Fire, Artillery Plot, First Direct Fire, Movement, Second
Direct Fire, and Scoring are the backbone of "The Perfect General".
The first time you read this run through, it may confuse you. Read it
a couple of times and foilow the instructions and the game play will
quickly become very clear,
The interface is simple and is quick to master. The learning of the
strategy and tactics should take a lifetime (of fun).
Each scenario shall have an attacker and defender. The defender is the
player with the fewer buy points. You may chose either side to play.
The game will use colors to differentiate between the two sides, with
RED signifying the attacker and BLUE used for the defender.
A player will have available buy points at the start of the game. Each
scenario fixes the quantity available. You can reduce this amount by
giving one of the two players a handicap. You will use these points to
select your initial combat forces. Please refer to the unit attribute
table in Appendix B of this booklet.
After selecting his initial forces for the coming battle, a player
places them onto the field of battle. Depending on the scenario,
certain areas of the play map are available for setup. Players may
place units in any of these initial positions.
Each scenario will have several defined victory point locations
(towns). Control of these victory point locations define game victory.
A side has control of a town when a unit occupies at least one
location within the town. IMPORTANT, you MUST have a unit in the city
at the end of the turn to control it. Control does not exist if an
enemy unit also occupies a location within the town or no one is in
the town. The scoring will tally Victory Points at the end of a turn.
Destruction of enemy units has no direct effect on victory
Some scenarios will provide reinforcement points at the beginning of
certain turns in the game. These points may be given to only one or
both sides. Other scenarios will award reinforcement points, based on
control of certain key Towns at the end of some turns. This is similar
to the awarding of Victory Points. A player uses these reinforcement
points like he used the initial buy points. He can purchase additional
combat units and place them onto the field of battle. (You will find
the scenario descriptions located in Appendix A. They will contain
information about the Reinforcements available for a scenario.)
Some scenarios will have regions set as neutral countries. These
regions have associated with them a certain number of buy points.
Should either player decide to enter a `neutral country', the game
will pause upon this encroachment. The player NOT invading the neutral
region will help defend this country. He will receive these associated
buy points to place additional forces within the neutral country for
its defense. The decision to invade a neutral country is complex. You
must weigh the strength of the defensive forces that your opponent
will mount against you. Balancing this is the lure of the frequently
generous victory points available for the towns within the country.
A game lasts a fixed number of turns, which varies by scenario. Each
turn consists of a sequence of phases. There are two parts to each
phase. The first is for the Attacker forces and the second for the
The phase sequence is as follows.
Unit purchase and placement: At the beginning of the game, a
commander will build a combat force. In some scenarios, additional
Buy Points may be available in iater turns to purchase
Mobile Artillery Plot: Orders for indirect fire for mobile artillery
will be given now. The units will execute these orders during the
Indirect Fire: All pending orders for indirect fire will now be
executed. Stationary and mobile artillery will now fire. The
commander will have given the orders for stationary artillery in the
Artillery Plot: The commander will order the plotting of indirect
fire for stationary artillery units (Light Artillery and Heavy
Artillery). These orders will execute during the Indirect Fire phase
of the NEXT turn.
Direct Fire: Orders for direct fire may be given. Shots will fire
when the order is given. The targeted unit may have the option to
shoot back (return fire).
Movement: Units may move to new locations. It is possible for an
opposing unit to fire at the moving unit (Passing Fire).
Direct Fire: Units not having fired this turn may receive direct
fire orders. As in the first Direct Fire phase, shots are fired when
the orders are given. The targeted unit also may return fire.
Scoring: Victory Points are accumulated. A commander also may earn
Reinforcement Buy Points.
Having a movement range of 9 per turn (over clear terrain), the
Armored Car is the fastest moving piece. It is also the easiest of the
armored unit types to kill, and the least strong offensively. This
unit is great on breakthroughs to get behind enemy lines to artillery
or his reinforcement points. Due to its fast movement, it is a
valuable unit for transporting infantry pieces.
The Light Tank is a fast armored unit, with a movement range of 6. It
is relatively weak on defense and offense, but if close enough can
damage any opposing unit. It is a useful, inexpensive all-purpose
unit. It is also quite good for monuments in front of public buildings
when the war is over.
This unit has a movement range of 5 and has more offensive and
defensive power than the Light Tank. It is the best all-purpose unit
you have available. Don't be afraid to use it. Many players have won
games when they used a considerable quantity of medium tanks.
Moving 4 hexes per turn, this is the slowest but most powerful of
armored units. It is also expensive! You must be careful how you use
this piece in the full kill mode of combat. If a light tank can get
within a range of two to this unit, it can destroy the heavy tank. If
used properly, these heavies can win many games for you. Also
remember, an indirect artillery shot does not discern between an
infantry and a heavy tank.
Like the heavy tanks, this unit has a movement range of 4 and is very
expensive. The Mobile Artillery can fire like regular artillery, but
is less accurate and has a limited indirect firing range. When this
unit plots indirect fire, it will fire the very next phase. If you
choose not to take indirect fire, it may take Direct Fire in later
phases like any other armored piece. In this mode of firing (direct)
it can fire with the effectiveness of a heavy tank. Defensively, it is
as vulnerable as a light tank. This is an expensive but valuable unit.
It has turned the tide of many battles.
Having a movement range of 1, this unit is not very mobile by itself.
An armored piece can transport an infantry unit. This unit can damage
armored units only at a range of one. It is inexpensive to buy and
easy to kill. It can be useful for scouting, revealing ambush, and
occupying towns to earn victory points.
This unit type has the attributes of the Infantry units, except cost.
It also has the important ability to build or remove mines. It also
can build a bridge over a river or destroy an existing bridge. The
Engineer can be a very valuable piece if used effectively.
The same as the Infantry units in movement and defensive capabilities,
the Bazooka has the offensive fire-power of a Light Tank. It is great
for inexpensive defense against armor.
Artillery units cannot move by themselves. An armored piece must
transport the artillery unit to move it. Defensively, it is more
vulnerable than even an Infantry unit. Offensively, the Light
Artillery can be a powerful weapon. This unit can execute indirect
fire or direct fire within a turn.
When firing indirect, the player plots the shot one turn, but must
wait until the next turn for the shot to fire. You also specify
whether the plotted shot will be with BARRAGE or not. Barrage shots
will affect the location hit by artillery shots for the entire turn,
blocking movement. Shots fired without barrage will hit and do their
damage. They will not have any lingering effects, other than the
damage that they cause to the terrain. Artillery shots may drift up to
a two locations from their target and will destroy anything they hit
directly. They also may damage or kill anything adjoining the strike
This unit has the same attributes as the Light Artillery, but is
significantly more powerful (and more expensive). Its range is more
than twice the range of the Light Artillery. When fired with BARRAGE,
the shot affects the strike location and the surrounding six adjacent
locations. This effect exists for the reminder of the turn. This can
cause your opponent considerable consternation!
A player can initially purchase mines and place them at the beginning
of a game. Engineers also can build them during game play. Mines may
not be placed or built on bridges or in towns. Engineers or a direct
hit from an artillery shot will destroy a mine. The mine will destroy
any unit that moves onto the location containing it. A mine has an
effective charge lasting two detonations. So another way to destroy a
mine is to move any two units onto the mine. The mine will destroy the
units, but also will burn itself out in the process. This may not be
the most efficient approach, but it does work. Mines are always
The features of the landscape are important considerations for the
aspiring Perfect General. They have significant effect on movement,
sighting, and combat results. The following terrain categories are
utilized in the various scenarios:
This is the typical "open space" land-type, providing no significant
combat advantage or disadvantage. Movement from one clear location to
an adjacent clear location costs 1 unit of movement. This "unit of
movement" is the standard used for describing the movement abilities
of all units. Note that even clear terrain may have more limited
movement capabilities, caused by environmental factors such as mud and
Roads provide a means of quick movement. Unless damaged by artillery
fire, roads allow a unit to move at half the cost of movement through
clear terrain. This benefit applies regardless of what other terrain
also occupies the location. Note that this advantage is only available
when moving along a road. It does not apply to the movement to or from
Track acts similar to road except that the movement rate is that of
Units depiete half their movement rate when entering a wooded
location. (Note that the "movement rate" refers to the total movement
amount allowed during 1 turn.) This terrain provides a defensive
combat advantage, and blocks vision. An opposing unit will not see a
unit located in this terrain type. However, this hidden unit will be-
come visible if it either moves or fires while within line of sight of
the enemy. The damage of artillery fire will change wooded locations
to forest rubble.
Forest rubble continues to block line of sight, but no longer gives a
defensive advantage. Movement is also slightly faster in that it is
now the same as rough terrain.
Movement will cost twice as much when going uphill. Hills may block
vision depending on the altitudes of source and target locations.
Units higher than an enemy unit have a combat advantage. This
advantage applies for both receiving fire and firing. Also, firing
units have their range increased by one if higher than their target.
Movement costs are the same as roads, costing half of normal. They act
as forest for defensive protection and line of sight. If an artillery
shot strikes a city location, the destroyed buildings will slow
movement. It will take 2 movement points to enter through the rubble.
Fortifications are man-made defensive positions. They block line of
sight and give a defensive advantage.
Rough, Desert, Destroyed Road, Cratered
This terrain type slows movement, costing twice as much as clear
terrain. It doesn't provide any offensive or defensive combat
Sea, Lake, Coast
No unit can enter this terrain. It is effectively out of bounds.
A place to find scantily clad beautiful (and not so beautiful) people
where such lack of clothing is socially acceptable. Invasions may
occur there. (Is there some connection between the two facts?)
Otherwise, the beach acts as rough or desert.
These act as roads, providing access across a river for armored
vehicles. Engineers can destroy bridges.
Rivers, Blown Bridge
The river blocks the movement of armored vehicles. Infantry, bazookas
and engineers can enter these locations, with the same movement cost
as clear terrain. An engineer can build a bridge over the river,
allowing access for armored units.
An escarpment is a very steep slope, bordering on being a cliff. As
such, movement onto an escarpment depletes half the units movement
A soft desert that slows down all forms of movement. Moving into the
depression depletes half the units movement rate.
All of your units may Move (or be transported) during the same turn.
Units move from location to location sequentially. The types of
terrain containing the unit and its destination for a single move
determine the cost of the move. The distance a unit can move within a
turn depends on that unit's movement rate. A unit may continue to move
until it has used up all of its movement points.
A unit can enter the location occupied by a friendly unit. It must,
however, move from that location in the same turn. Two units cannot
occupy the same location, unless one of them is moving. There is one
exception to this rule. One armored unit can be transporting another
unit. The rules consider this to be a single unit occupying the
A moving unit cannot move through a location occupied by an enemy
unit. The alternatives here are to either move around that location or
to engage in close assault (discussed later on), if possible.
Some terrain types block all movement for specific units. Unless this
occurs, a unit can always move a minimum of one location within a
Turns occurring at night impose special rules on movement. A unit may
not move next to a spotted unit at night.
Some unit types are not very mobile. Moving these units to locations
far from your starting positions can take a long time. To aid you with
this problem, the game allows tactical hitch-hiking. The technical
term for this is transport.
Armored units can carry non-vehicular units, such as infantry types
and artillery. One accomplishes this by moving the armored unit onto
the location occupied by the unit to be carried. The commander then
gives the Load Transport order, which will cost 1 movement point. The
armored unit can then proceed with the remainder of its movement. The
carried unit will accompany its host on the journey.
Once the units reach their destination, the commander can issue the
Unload Transport command. This causes the carried unit to deploy in
that location. The process of unloading will cost the armored unit 1
movement point. Note that this unit also must have enough movement
remaining to move from that location in the current turn.
The following rules apply to the loading of a transported unit.
a. Armored Cars, Light Tanks, Medium Tanks, and Heavy Tanks are the only units
permitted to transport another unit. (Note: Mobile artillery cannot
b. Infantry, Engineers, Bazookas, Light Artillery, and Heavy Artillery
are the only units can be transported.
c. The carried unit must not have moved or fired during the current
turn. With artillery units, they also must not have plotted
indirect fire that turn.
d. When a unit moves into a location to pick up another unit, it must
have at least 1 movement point remaining.
The following rules apply when a unit is carrying another.
a Both commanders will know that the unit has cargo.
b. Carried units cannot fire. Artillery units also cannot plot
c. If the carrying unit dies, its cargo is also killed.
The unloading process has these rules.
a. The unloading unit must have enough fuel remaining to drop its
cargo. This will cost 1 movement point.
b. The unloading unit also must move from the drop-off location in the same
turn. The unit, therefore, must have enough movement remaining for both the
unloading and the movement.
c. The unloaded unit cannot move or fire until the next turn.
There are three types of ways of inflicting damage (in combat) on your
opponent. (Note: The management discourages the throwing of chairs at
Direct Fire: This is a single shot fired directly at an enemy unit. To
engage in direct fire, the unit must see enemy directly (LOS) to fire.
Indirect Fire: Artillery units can fire indirectly as well as
directly. Indirect fire can be at an enemy that is out of sight,
behind woods or hills, or in towns. The target location must be within
the line-of-sight of a friendly unit. Targets also may be locations
containing no enemy unit. A player may desire to target towns or
woods, for example. He may frequently discover hidden units in this
Close Assault: An unfired armored unit (except mobile artillery) can
move directly onto ANY enemy unit. The resulting engagement will cause
the death of one of the units. It also may result in damage for the
victor, if playing under Partial Kill rules.
The following is a detailed explanation of the above:
Units can choose to engage in direct fire at least twice and as many
as four times during a turn. A unit may only actually fire once during
the turn, however.
All units may fire direct fire. Artillery units can only fire direct
if they have not plotted indirect fire during this turn.
For a unit to fire direct fire, the following conditions must be true.
a. The target must be within the effective range of the firing unit.
b. The firing unit cannot have fired yet in that turn.
c. The target unit must be in line of sight of the firing unit.
d. A unit must have spotted the target unit. A unit's seeing an opponent's
location (within line of sight) does not mean that it has
spotted the opponent. The target may actually be hiding in that location.
The act of firing or moving while within the line of sight of an enemy
causes the unit to be sighted. Once sighted, a unit remains so until it
ends a phase outside the line of sight of any enemy unit.
e. Artillery units (including mobile artillery) cannot perform
direct fire in the same turn in which they have plotted indirect
f. Units may not direct fire in the same turn that they are transported.
g. Units may not fire at night, but they may party.
The target of direct fire has the option to return fire, if it has not
already fired that turn. In returning fire, the unit shot before the
resolution of the may fire at any eligible enemy unit in range. The
targeted unit fires then returns original shot. This allows the unit to
fire one last shot before its possible destruction.
Indirect (Artillery) Fire
Artillery and mobile artillery may engage in indirect fire. A
commander must plan artillery shots before they execute. This plotting
occurs in one of two phases. Mobile artillery will plot their shots in
the phase immediately before indirect fire resolution. Light and heavy
artillery will plot their shots FOR THE NEXT TURN immediately after
the artillery resolution phase. This means that a commander must plan
his artillery shots VERY carefully.
A player is never required to engage a unit in indirect fire. Units
that can use indirect fire also have significant direct fire power. A
player must decide this tactical action for the unit during its plot
phase. Once plotted for indirect fire, the artillery will be unable to
take direct fire for the current turn.
Plotting an indirect shot consists of two decisions. First, the
commander must choose the target location. The target specified must
be within the line of sight of ANY friendly unit. It also must be
within the firing unit's effective range.
In addition to selecting the location, the commander must decide
whether to fire a barrage or not. Note that mobile artillery cannot
fire a barrage. Barrage fire makes it quite dangerous for units from
both sides to enter the strike hex until the next turn.
All plotted indirect fire will occur during the artillery resolution
phase. When the firing unit dies before the indirect resolution, the
shot will still strike in the area plotted. In this case, however,
barrage effects are cancelled. This shot resolves as a non-barrage
Artillery fire does not always strike the selected target. The shot
may drift. The drift may be from 0 to 3 hexes, which varies with the
type of unit firing. Drift can occur in any direction from the
Indirect fire destroys a unit in the strike location. The shot also
will affect units adjacent to the strike location. Under the Random
Kill rules, a light or heavy artillery unit has a 50% chance of
hitting an affected unit. The mobile artillery is a little less
effective, having a 33% chance to hit the affected unit. If hit,
these units will either receive damage (Partial Kill rules) or be
destroyed (Full Kill rules). With any of these rules options,
surviving units next to the strike location will lose their movement
ability for that turn.
Barrage fire will block the line of sight. The barrage also will
destroy units entering a location under that barrage. Barrage shots
fired by a heavy artillery will continue to affect locations next to
the strike location. Units moving into such location will either lose
their movement or their existence, as if they were originally
adjacent to the strike.
While moving, an unfired armored unit may try to take a location held
by an enemy unit. Note that the Mobile Artillery unit cannot engage
in this activity. The resulting fight is a Close Assault. It is a
battle to the death, as one of the fighting combat units will not
survive. If the moving unit is victorious, it will move into the
contested location. It also will have used its one direct fire for
the turn, and will lose any remaining movement. If the moving unit
loses the fight, the enemy unit will remain in the contested
location. If this enemy unit has not fired yet during this turn, the
fight will use his direct fire shot. His chances of winning, however,
are greater if this shot is available.
When playing under "Partial Kill" rules, the victorious unit in a
Close Assault may also incur some damage. This damage will never be
fatal, but it could be costly.
The following table shows the chances of the attacker being
victorious during close assauit when using random rules.
Attacker AC LT MT HT
AC 40% 50% 60% 70%
LT 30% 40% 50% 60%
MT 20% 30% 40% 50%
HT 10% 20% 30% 40%
BZ 60% 70% 80% 90%
Engineer 80% 85% 90% 95%
If the attacker is more than 50% damaged, decrease odds by 20%..
(This applies only to "Partial Kill" rules.)
Odds will not be less than 5% nor more than 95%.
When using non-random rules, the attacker will be the victor if the
calculated odds are more than 50%.
SIGHTING AND SPOTTING
In this era of "low tech" warfare, vision is your most important
weapon. Line of sight refers to the calculation of what is visible from
a given location. Several factors affect this determination. Various
terrain can block your view of areas behind it. In addition,
environmental factors may reduce visibility. This limits the maximum
distance that one can see.
On a clear day, the maximum visible distance is 25. Fog will reduce the
maximum to 10. Night maneuvers operate under a maximum visibility
distance of 5.
Units may be in a spotted or unspotted condition. Under "limited view"
rules, the battle map will not display unspotted units for the opponent
An unspotted units cannot be the target of direct fire.
All units start in an unspotted condition. A unit changes from
unspotted to spotted under specific conditions.
a. The unit occupies non-blocking terrain, and an enemy unit has a
direct line of sight to the unit.
b. The unit moves into or fires from a location in LOS of an enemy unit.
c. The unit is next to an enemy unit.
d. If artillery fire destroys the unit, the unit will become
spotted. At this point, however, the unit will be a pile of shes
and rubble. It is spotted, however!
A unit reverts to unspotted condition should it end a phase not in the
line of sight of any enemy unit.
Note that, except under rule `a' (above), the unit will become spotted
at the end of the phase, not when it causes the spotting to occur.
The above discussion about spotting leads to the concept of ambush.
Unless you are using "Full View" rules, unspotted units are not seen
by your opponent. The element of surprise is your ally! While playing
"Full View" games, these rules still provide an advantage. Although
your opponent will see these unspotted units, he cannot attack them
with direct fire. His options are much more limited!
Note that you must play with the "Full View" rules when playing a
two-human-player game on a single computer system.