(The following address by Colonel Salisbury was delivered to the top
graduating students from the Annapolis Naval Academy. The address followed
an intelligence summary by Captain Pietro Salieri of the Italian Navy and
an operations summary by Commander James Swinburn of the British Navy.
Admiral Oliphant was in attendance.)
Good morning. I'm sure you all know each other by now, so introductions
should not be necessary. My name is Vernon Salisbury, and I am the
Commanding Officer of TAG (for "Terrorist Action Group"), the special NATO
task force formed to combat international terrorism and piracy on the high
seas. You have all been selected on the basis of your dedication, your
commitment to world peach, and, of course, your naval skills. You are the
cream of your graduating class, the best there is in the world today. We
have high hopes for you; with your help, we will combat the piracy and
terrorism that has become epidemic on the high seas.
In our search for the ultimate weapon against naval terrorism, we have
found that one vessel combines the elements of speed, maneuverability and
firepower to provide a force that is almost impossible to resist by most
terrorist vessels. I refer to the new hydrofoil, a hybrid vessel that has
been described as part boat and part aircraft. You will be gaining
first-hand experience with hydrofoils int he next few weeks, but a short
introduction may be in order for those among you unfamiliar with the
Briefly, the hydrofoil is a vessel that "flies" over water rather than
cutting through it. To achieve this, the hydrofoil uses lift devices
similar to the airfoil wings of an aircraft, except that its foils use the
lift buoyancy of water rather than that of air, with the result that when
the hydrofoil the hydrofoil is relatively unaffected by water resistance
and surface turbulence, allowing it to travel fast and economically even
over choppy seas. This, together with its maneuverability and firepower,
makes the hydrofoil the ideal patrol vessel for keeping the peace in
"sensitive" areas around the world.
Three different hydrofoils have been made available to use: the PHM
Pegasus, the Italian Sparviero, and the Israeli Flagstaff II. The
Hydrofoil Operation Manual in your information packet in front of you
contains all the information you need on these three vessels. Your
information packet also includes detailed descriptions of the missions you
will be undertaking. Ship information and silhouettes are provided
throughout the manual to help you identify the enemy vessels that you are
likely to encounter in your assignments. Some of you may be tested on your
ability to identify your enemies by their silhouettes. Finally, your
information packet includes the Command Summary Card, which summarizes all
the important operating instructions. We recommend you keep this handy
during your missions. Things happen fast out there, and there isn't always
time to consult your manual for information.
Table of Contents
Part I: Getting To Know Your Hydrofoil............................... 3
Part II: Assignments................................................. 3
One on One........................................... 5
Turkey Shoot......................................... 5
Battle Training...................................... 5
Graduation Exercise.................................. 5
Sink the Bismarck.................................... 6
Splash 20............................................ 6
Missile Alley........................................ 7
Pegasus Vice......................................... 7
Terrorist Attack..................................... 8
A Better Part of Valor............................... 8
The Med Flight....................................... 9
Search For Terrorists................................ 9
El Tiburon Loco...................................... 9
The Cold Cordon..................................... 10
Surveillance Mission................................ 11
Supply Convoy....................................... 11
Jihad: Persian Gulf................................. 12
Jihad II............................................ 13
Part III: Hydrofoil Operation....................................... 13
The View from the Bridge.................................... 14
Operations Map.............................................. 15
Weapons and Defenses........................................ 16
Operating Instructions...................................... 19
Part IV: Technical Data............................................. 21
Design Development and Background........................... 21
The NATO TAG Hydrofoils..................................... 26
Part I: Getting To Know Your Hydrofoil
Preliminary Training: If this is your first experience controlling a
hydrofoil, you may want to sit back and watch a demonstration. Here's how:
When you have the PHM Pegasus up and running (see your Command Summary Card
for details), you will be presented with a selection of assignments. Each
assignment is a mission taking you to various sensitive parts of the world.
These are described in detail in Part II of this Handbook. To watch the
demonstration, select Mission 0 from the list. As you watch, take note of
the two "view modes" (Bridge and Operations Map) and the features you can
control from each. You may want to read Part III of this Manual as you
watch the demonstration.
When you feel you are ready to undertake a real mission, press Shift-Q to
quit the demonstration then select another scenario.
We suggest you start with one of the early missions before attempting the
more advanced ones.
Part II: Assignments
Once you have received basic hydrofoil training, you will be in a position
to undertake the following assignments as part of the TAG task force. Of
the various assignments, the first few are part of your advanced training,
and provide you with simulated combat experience. We strongly recommend
that you gain proficiency in these early assignments before you proceed to
the more advanced missions.
At the end of each assignment you will receive a score and a rank, based on
your performance during the mission. Scores are calculated on the basis of
five factors, as described below. Note that the actual values will vary
from mission to mission, because of the different objectives of each one.
For example, in Battle Training, speed and destruction are the most
important factors, while survival is not. By contrast, in A Better Part of
Valor, survival is most important, while destruction of enemies is
1. Main Objective: Full points are awarded if the mission is successfully
completed; no points if the main objective was not accomplished.
Range: 1000 - 5000 points.
2. Enemies Destroyed: Points are awarded for each enemy destroyed. Range:
50 - 500 points.
3. Enemies Damaged: Points are awarded for each enemy hit but not
destroyed. Range: 25 - 250 points.
4. Time Remaining: Points for time remaining are awarded only when the
mission is successfully completed before time runs out. Points are for
each minute of time remaining. Range: 1 - 4 points/minute.
5. Survival Bonus: Survival points are awarded when the mission is
successfully completed, assuming you haven't been blown out of the
water by the enemy. Points are awarded for each of the twelve sections
of the ship that are capable of sustaining damage (six for the hull and
six for the systems). Full points are awarded for undamaged sections,
half for slight damage (yellow on the damage display*), and no points
for heavy damage (red on the damage display). Range: 20 - 200.
Ranks are based on points earned, with different scales for each mission,
depending on their relative difficulty. For example, because the early
training exercises are the easiest of all the missions, you can only
advance as high as Lieutenant, no matter how high your score. More
difficult missions, such as the Search For Terrorists, allow you to achieve
the rank of Captain, while the most difficult ones, such as the Supply
Convoy, allow you to reach the top rank of Admiral. In any case, to
achieve the top rank in an assignment you must accomplish the main
The ranks, in ascending order, are as follows: Deck Mopper, Ensign,
Lieutenant, Commander, Captain, Commodore, Rear Admiral, Admiral.
Class: ASSAD Manufactured by: Italy
Type: Missile Corvette Used by: Libya, Iraq
Length (feet): 202
Tons Disp. (full load) 670
Cruising speed (knots): 14
Max speed (knots): 32
Guns: 76mm, twin35mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: 2,4, or 6 Otomat
Other: 6 Torpedo tubes,
can lay mines
Notes: A powerful missile boat, capable of
attacks at up to 80 miles away.
(* = Included in IBM version only)
One on One*
Objective: Destroy the enemy ship before it destroys you.
Rank Attainable: Ensign
Enemy Vessels: PHM Hercules
Strategy Tips: Be quick and accurate with the guns!
You are matched against the PHM Hercules in a test of your rapid-fire
shooting skills. This even match of two ships with radar-assisted high
speed cannons should result in a quick defeat for one or the other. Start
firing, and don't let up!
Objective: Shoot down Soviet Hormone helicopters within allotted time.
Rank Attainable: Lieutenant.
Enemy Vessels: Hormone Helicopters
Strategy Tips: Use your cannon quickly, with an eye to accuracy.
This is a safe training exercise, emphasizing accuracy and speed while
manually aiming the cannon. A dozen simulated Hormone-type Russian
helicopters are flying in evasive patterns near your position. You must
shoot them all down in your allotted time to complete your objective.
Objective: Sink all simulated enemy ships
Rank Attainable: Lieutenant
Enemy Vessels: Patrol Boat; OSA I, Nanuchka II.
Strategy Tips: This is a good learning assignment. Use your gun on the
patrol boats, and save your missiles for the bigger ships.
Ten enemy ships will be introduced to your training area off Key West, one
at a time. These vessels will range from simple patrol boats all the way to
the powerful Nanuchka II missile corvettes. This exercise is designed to
familiarize you with the PHM and its weapon systems.
Objective: Sink all simulated enemy ships.
Rank Attainable: Lieutenant
Enemy Vessels: Patrol Boat; OSA I, Nanuchka II.
Strategy Tips: Get moving right away; you're a sitting duck if you don't.
Use your missiles on the more distant ships and your guns on the closer
ones. Watch your radar for fast-moving
dots approaching your ship. These are enemy missiles. Use chaff to
deflect them (see Part III of your Manual for instructions on using chaff).
In this exercise, all the enemy vessels you encountered in the first
assignment will be coming at you at once, doing their best to blow you out
of the water. Sinking all the enemy vessels as quickly as possible is more
important than surviving undamaged.
Sink the Bismarck*
Objective: Destroy the German battleship Bismarck
Rank Attainable: Commander
Enemy Vessels: The Bismarck
Strategy Tips: Fire missiles early to slow him down. Maneuver quickly but
carefully into gun range.
A mysterious time warp send your hydrofoil back to the cold waters of the
North Atlantic early in World War II. You must use your cannon and the
only two Harpoons to survive the trip to sink the legendary battleship
Bismarck. Use your speed and maneuverability to dodge the massive cannon
shells of the Bismarck - one hit on your small craft will spell your doom!
Winston Churchill said it best: "I don't care how you do it, you must sink
Objective: Sink all simulated enemy craft.
Rank Attainable: Commander
Enemy Vessels: Patrol Boar; OSA I, Nanuchka II.
Class: Large Patrol Craft Manufactured by: Many
Type: Standard Patrol Used by: Many
Vessel Length (feet): 125
Tons Disp. (full load) 90
Cruising speed (knots): 15
Max speed (knots): 27
Guns: Varies - twin
30mm or 40mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: None
Notes: This is a generic class representing
many lightly armed patrol vessels.
Strategy Tips: Your top priority is the first group of enemies. Use your
guns on enemies close at hand, missiles on the distant ones, and move as
quickly as possible. Reduce radar range to minimum in order to spot
incoming missiles, and keep that gun firing!
Splash 20 is designed to test the experienced commander's ability to
destroy active targets quickly. A dozen enemy ships quickly appear in your
immediate vicinity. Once the first minute of the scenario passes, a number
os ships up to 8 replaces those which you've sunk so far. So, if you've
sunk 6 enemy ships, 6 replace them; if you sink 9 enemy craft, 8 will be
replaced (a maximum of 12 enemy ships is active at any one time). To
achieve the maximum rank of Commander, you must destroy at least eight of
the original twelve ships within the first minute, and go on to destroy a
total of 20 ships before time is up. If all goes well, it will be the
enemy's bow sinking under the waves - not yours.
Objective: Destroy all aggressor missile boats.
Rank Attainable: Commander
Enemy Vessels: Komar
Strategy Tips: Keep an eye out for incoming missiles; remember that your
gun can shoot them down.
Another training exercise to brush up on our missile avoidance skills. You
must head due South at full speed, destroying all of two separate waves of
missile boats along the way. Good luck, you'll have your hands full.
Objective: Capture 4 drug running speedboats
Rank Attainable: Commander
Enemy Vessels: Speedboats
Strategy Tips: Fire a warning shot across the bow of all suspicious craft;
your goal is search and seizure, not destruction.
Four drug runners from South America are trying to sneak past your
hydrofoil into Miami, carrying their deadly contraband. The criminals'
speedboats are indistinguishable from civilian craft, giving them excellent
cover. You must use your deck gun to fire warning shots at any speedboats
you see, forcing them to stop. Hit any ship - even a smuggler craft, and
the press has a field day at your expense. The mission then ends in
failure. Once a boat has stopped, bring it up on the binocular view and
move in close to search it for drugs. You'll need to get right next to the
speed boats - the radar blips should be side-by-side on the lowest-scale
radar view. You must find and capture the 4 outlaw boats within the
allotted time to complete your object (but which 4?).
Objective: Sink all terrorist vessels
Rank Attainable: Commander
Enemy Vessels: Patrol Boats, OSA I, OSA II, Zhuk
Strategy Tips: The terrorist vessels are to the west of your starting
position and moving rapidly north. Try to cut them off, while avoiding (or
destroying) their allies coming in from the northeast. Save your missiles
for the OSA class ships.
Approximately eight hours ago, terrorists attacked a seaside resort,
killing dozens of vacationers and wounding hundreds. The terrorists were
seen fleeing west in various patrol craft. Witnesses estimate seven to ten
vessels of varying types, some suspected to be OSA I missile boats, others
small patrol vessels. Your mission is to seek and intercept these vessels,
and sink them.
Be advised that interventionist forces from nearby countries may attempt to
aid the terrorists as they try to escape to their base. Be particularly
alert for enemy ships heading southwest out of Syrian waters. The
terrorist base is suspected to be somewhere on Cyprus, but the terrorists
split off into at least four separate groups when fleeing. An Israeli
Flagstaff II with Gabriel missiles had been made available.
A Better Part of Valor
Objective: Escape with your hydrofoil off the south edge of the map with as
little damage as possible.
Rank Attainable: Captain
Enemy Vessels: Komar and Assad missile boats.
Class: Vosper-Thornycroft "121 ft" Manufactured by: U.K.
Type: Fast Attack Craft - Used by: Venezuela
Gun/Missile Length (feet): 121
Tons Disp. (full load) 170
Cruising speed (knots): 16
Max speed (knots): 41
Guns: 76mm or
Anti-Ship Missiles: May have 2
Notes: This is a variably armed ship. Some
have the Otomat missile and a 40mm gun,
used mostly for anti-aircraft. Others have
only the 76mm Oto Melara.
Strategy Tips: Keep moving at full speed. Engage enemies at extreme range
with your missiles if they are in your path.
War is brewing in South America. Your PHM is needed there as soon as
possible. From your base at Key West, you will need to navigate the
dangerous Yucatan Straits between Mexico and Cuba in order to reach
southern waters. To accomplish your objective in this assignment, you will
need only get the PHM to the southern edge of the map. Look out for enemy
vessels who will be trying to stop you. Use your SeaSprite helicopter to
screen your PHM and help you avoid the enemy, or to help you seek out and
The Med Flight*
Objective: Carry peace documents safely out of the Mediterranean
Rank Attainable: Captain
Enemy Vessels: Patrol, Komar, Assad
Strategy Tips: Hold a fast, straight course due west until you approach
Tunisia. Change course to the north, then west to pass between Tunisia and
Sicily. You can outgun most of your enemies; however, don't waste time in
attacks if they take you off course.
A new peace treaty between Israel and Jordon has enraged Israel's Arab
foes. They've threatened to shoot down or blow up any plane or car
carrying both the documents and the two nations' Ambassadors to the signing
ceremony in Paris. Your hydrofoil has been assigned to slip through the
net. Your objective: escape off the west edge of the map before the time
Search for Terrorists
Objective: Sink the two fleeting Nanuchka II class ships
Rank Attainable: Captain
Enemy Vessels: OSA I, OSA II, Nanuchka II.
Strategy Tips: Try to avoid the other ships on your way to your objective
(the two ships fleeing south together). Save your missiles for them.
Two missiles corvettes have unsuccessfully attacked an American base off
the southern coast of Sicily. A Sparviero hydrofoil (armed with Exocet
missiles) and an AB 212 helicopter are available to help hunt them down.
The mission objective is to sink both attackers (who will be fleeing south
to a friendly port) before they escape. They are thought to be fleeing
toward Tripoli, and can be distinguished from similar vessels by their
course. Although a variety of enemy ships will be patrolling along a line
north of Tripoli, remember that the fleeing ships are your main objective.
El Tiburon Loco*
Objective: Preempt attack on the U.S.
Rank Attainable: Commodore
Enemy Vessels: Matka-class Soviet hydrofoils
Strategy Tips: The name of this scenario tells it all - a "crazy shark" is
out to wreak havoc on the U.S. Locate both enemy squadrons as quickly as
possible, then use your missiles to save travel time.
A rogue Cuban naval commander has decided to take matters into his own
hands, and has launched a unilateral attack on the US! Two squadrons of
five Matka class Soviet built hydrofoils (each armed with 2 anti-ship
missiles and a deck gun similar to your own) are closing in on Florida.
You must stop them at any cost, while taking care not to harm the civilian
pleasure craft in the area - no easy trick. Muster all your resources to
defend the Florida Coast.
Objective: Prevent Soviet Nanuchka corvettes from raiding U.S. convoys.
Rank Attainable: Commodore
Enemy Vessels: Nanuchka III
Strategy Tips: Using the helicopters effectively is the key to finding the
Twelve Nanuchka III class missile corvettes are heading into the North
Atlantic to raid US convoys. Your hydrofoil is stationed near Rekjavik,
Iceland, along with a single Seahawk helicopter. A logistics error has left
you without chaff rounds, and your only defense against missiles is your
cannon. A supply vessel with another Seahawk is positioned to your
Southwest. The supply vessel can refit you once with shells and chaff
rounds, if you move in close and shut down your engines. Your objective is
to find and sink all the Nanuchkas before they exit off the South edge of
Class: ZHUK Manufactured by: U.S.S.R.
Type: Fast Attack Craft - Used by: Algeria, Angola,
Patrol Bulgaria, Cuba,
Length (feet): 75
Tons Disp. (full load) 50
Cruising speed (knots): 16
Max speed (knots): 30
Guns: 2 twin 14.5mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: None
Notes: An older patrol craft, used mostly
in coastal waters.
Objective: Find and photograph all eight cargo vessels in the Caribbean
without sinking any.
Rank Attainable: Read Admiral
Enemy Vessels: Cargo Ships, OSA II Missile boats.
Strategy Tips: The cargo ships move slowly, but they are scattered all over
the sea and will eventually reach safe port. Move fast, and use your
helicopters to find them as soon as possible.
It is suspected that military equipment is being smuggled to the dictator
through an outwardly neutral South American country. A cargo ship has been
photographed loading up with tanks and aircraft parts in the Baltic, and is
believed to be approaching Nicaragua. Seven ships of similar construction
carrying farm machinery and building supplies are also entering the area to
provide cover for the arms ship.
Your mission is to find all eight ships and photograph them at close range
so their identities can be established and compared with that of the
suspected arms ship. Photography is accomplished automatically by
approaching within 1500 feet of the ship and training your binoculars on it
(by choosing it as a target). Be careful not to sink them! Sinking one of
these vessels will result in an international incident, and will
immediately end the mission in failure. Use your two Seahawk helicopters
to scout out the cargo ships. Some of the dictator's forces are believed
to be in this area, so try to identify any ships you find at as long a
range as possible. Watch your fuel usage!
Objective: Get your convoy ship to the southern part of the eastern edge of
Rank Attainable: Admiral
Enemy Vessels: Vosper-Thornycroft 121 ft class.
Strategy Tips: Conserve fuel by keeping your engine setting at 2 or less as
much as possible, sprinting ahead at high speed only when you spot enemies
or when you fall behind your convoy ship. Keep the convoy moving at full
speed toward the south one-third of the east edge of the map, and use your
helicopters to spot attackers before they can get close. Keep your
hydrofoil between the attackers and your convoy ship.
A South American country has been taken over by a dictator, who has
succeeded in turning the Caribbean into a war zone. Your mission is to
escort a special high-speed cargo ship carrying medical supplies and foot
to a group of refugees. The dictator's forces consist of two varieties of a
convertible Vosper-Thornycroft ship that comes with either two missiles and
a small caliber gun, or just a 76mm canon identical to your own.
Jihad: Persian Gulf
Objective: Escort the supply ship safely into the Indian Ocean.
Rank Attainable: Admiral
Enemy Vessels: OSA I and OSA II missile corvettes
Strategy Tips: You're on your own for this one.
Your mission is to escort a supply ship out of the Persian Gulf. The only
complication: a war is going on, and innocent ships are being fired upon
without warning. The supply ship is trying to evacuate western workers
from the war zone, but the captain is too frightened to try to escape
through the maelstrom of warring factions that fill the Gulf. You will
need to make your way through the Straits of Hormuz to Kuwait where you
will rendezvous with the supply ship. The supply ship will respond to your
controls in the same way as an auxiliary helicopter (see Part III of your
Try to avoid conflict if possible. Enemies are less likely to attack if
you are peaceful. However, if you take hostile action or if you get too
close, they will pass the word to their fleet to attack. The supply ship
will be a tempting target for them at all times, so guard it well. In any
case, remember that your primary mission is to get the supply ship out
safely - damage to your hydrofoil is important only insofar as it comprises
that mission. Use your two Seahawk helicopters to provide you with
critical information on ship movements. Watch out for the ongoing battles
- if you get too close you will be presumed hostile and fired upon. Watch
your fuel and time limit!
Class: Sikorsky Seahawk Manufactured by: U.S.A.
Type: LAMPS III helicopter Used by: U.S.A., Japan
Length (feet): 40
Take-off weight (lbs): 20,000
Cruising speed (knots): 145
Max speed (knots): 160
Anti-Ship Missiles: None
Other: 2 Mk 46 torpedoes
Notes: This later model variant ot the
Army's Blackhawk helicopter is much
improved over the LAMPS 1 helicopter.
Objective: Escort cargo ship safely out of the Persian Gulf
Rank Attainable: Admiral
Enemy Vessels: OSA I, OSA II
Strategy Tips: Draw upon cargo ship's resources as you fight your way past
opponents. Keep all enemy craft far from your cargo ship.
This escort scenario is much like the original Jihad scenario, with two
important differences. More enemies block your way, but the cargo ship you
are assigned to escort out of the Gulf can reload your hydrofoil with new
cannon shells and chaff rounds once during the mission. To reload,
position your hydrofoil close to the cargo ship, then bring both boats to a
complete stop. Deal with your enemies, and escort the cargo ship safely
through the narrow Straits of Hormuz and out of the embattled Gulf.
Part III: Hydrofoil Operation
The hydrofoil is an all-weather, high-speed, compact weapons system, making
it ideal for strike, patrol and surveillance missions. Because of its
fully submerged foils (see Part IV for technical details), the hydrofoil is
capable of sustained high-speed runs across heavy seas, with a
maneuverability unmatched by any other sea-going vessel. In addition, the
hydrofoil carries an arsenal consisting of a 76mm gun, missiles (Gabriel,
Exocet, or Harpoon, depending on configuration), and chaff for radar
As hydrofoil commander, you can switch between the view from the
hydrofoil's bridge and a top-down view of the operations map. Each uses
its own set of keyboard and joystick controls. Specific operating
instructions are given in the Command Summary Card, included in your
THE VIEW FROM THE BRIDGE
Refer to Figure 1, below. The top half of the screen shows the view from
the bridge. Inset at the top of the screen shows a close-up view through
| |----------------| | Binocular
Aim | == | -|-----------------|- View
Corrector | | |----------------| | Aiming
Light -----|--------| -|- ---------------------|- Cursor
| |------------------------------------------| |
| | |----------------------|-|- Radar
| |--------|----------|------------|---------| |
| | <GUN> | <LOCK> | <DEPTH> | | |
| | 400 | + | |-----| | |
| |<CHAFF> | <FUEL> 2.5 | |-----| | |
Weapons | | 24 | |||||| |---|---------|-|- Radar Range
Indicator--|-| <HASH> | 02468 | | |-----| | |
| | XX XX | RAM|||||| ---|--- | |-----|-|-|- Damage
| | XX XX | SPEED|||||| | | | | Indicator
| |--------|0..1..2..3..4..5 \---|---------|-|- Gyrocompass
| MODE: AIMING TIME: 1 |
| |--|- Time
Figure 1: Bridge View
Class: Soviet Cargo Ship Manufactured by: U.S.S.R.
Type: Standard Soviet/Warsaw Used by: Many
Pact Length (feet): 200 and up
Tons Disp. (full load) 500 and up
Cruising speed (knots): 8
Max speed (knots): 15
Note: Used to transport a variety of goods.
The lower half of the screen shows the hydrofoil's instruments. These are
described as follows:
Gyrocompass - Indicates hydrofoil's current bearing; north is straight up.
RPM - Indicates engine speed.
Speed - Indicates hydrofoil's speed in knots (nautical miles per hour).
Radar - Shows all craft within currently selected radar range.
Range Indicator - Shows currently selected radar range in nautical miles.
Weapons Status - Indicates which weapon system is currently active and the
Fuel - Indicates the percentage of fuel remaining.
Warning Indicators - Warning indicators show a potential problem:
Depth: Indicates danger of running aground. Depth warning flashes
to indicate that the hydrofoil is pointed to land. An automatic
avoidance system keeps the hydrofoil from running aground; just
turn the ship away from land to stop the warning.
Lock: One or more enemy missiles are locked onto your hydrofoil.
This means that the enemy have fired (or are about to fire)
missiles at you.
Damage - The damage indicators show which parts of the hydrofoil have
sustained light or heavy damage. See detailed discussion below.
You can switch from the view from the bridge to a map of the surrounding
area (see Figure 2).
| /\ ------------|-- Convoy
| \/ |
Helicopter 1 -|------- 0 |
| |-| -----|--- Hydrofoil
| 0 --------------|-- Helicopter 2
Currently | |
Craft---------| HYDROFOIL KNOTS: 50 TIME: 1 |
Time ---| NOW 5:45 |
Elapsed | ENDS 12:00 |
Total Time Allowed to Complete Scenario
Figure 2: Operations Map
The map shows the entire area of operations for the current assignment. It
shows all the major land masses, the borders of the assignment area, the
current location of the hydrofoil, the locations of all the friendly forces
and the locations of all enemy forces that are within radar range. The
hydrofoil is shown in white, together with its maximum radar range. In
addition, the operations map shows the locations of your helicopters (if
applicable, see below). Control of such helicopters or an escorted convoy
is maintained from the Operations Map. See your Command Summary Card for
WEAPONS AND DEFENSES
Your hydrofoil is equipped with the very latest in offensive and tactical
weaponry. The following information is a general description of each of
the weapons and defense systems. Specific operating instructions can be
found in the Command Summary Card.
The Oto-Melara 76mm automatic water-cooled cannon is widely used by navies
throughout the world. Its fire rate of 90 rounds per minute makes it
effective even against aircraft and missiles, while its range of almost ten
miles makes it effective against small ships. Note, however, that because
of the time needed for a shell to travel to its target, the Oto-Melara's
effective range against moving targets is approximately six miles. Thus,
even though your fire control radar (see below) allows you to lock on a
target, you will need to "lead" your cannon ahead of moving targets further
than one or two miles away. The further the moving target, and the faster
it moves, the more you will need to lead your cannon, and the greater the
likelihood of error. For best results, use the "aim corrector lights"
around the binocular view to adjust your aim (see Aiming and Firing
Weapons, below), and "walk the shells" in toward the target.
Class: NANUCHKA II Manufactured by: U.S.S.R.
Type: Missile Corvette Used by: Algeria, India,
Length (feet): 198
Tons Disp. (full load) 900
Cruising speed (knots): 15
Max speed (knots): 34
Guns: Twin 57mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: 4 SS-N-2C Styx
Other: 1 SA-N-4 Anti-
Note: A Libyan ship of this class was sunk
by US warplanes in April, 1986.
The Mark 34 Chaffroc system on your hydrofoil allows you to fire exploding
rockets filled with aluminum foil ("chaff") into the air. When they
explode, the rockets disperse their chaff into the air, attracting the
enemy missiles and deflecting them from your ship. Because the enemy
missiles will tend to follow the chaff as your hydrofoil moves away, your
best strategy is to fire the chaff when you are traveling at right angles
to the oncoming missile. Timing is also important. If you fire too early,
the missiles will lock back onto you when the chaff disperses. If you fire
too late, the missiles will not have time to be deflected to the chaff
before their proximity warheads explode. Chaff is best fired when the
enemy missile is about a mile away.
The Harpoon missiles are you most accurate and most potent weapons. They
will hit their target 90 percent of the time and will destroy most small
ships with a single hit. Because your radar is likely to be more accurate
over greater distances than the enemy's, you can destroy an enemy vessel by
firing a Harpoon at your maximum (40 mile) sighting range even before the
enemy has a chance to launch against you.
Gabriel Missiles (Israeli hydrofoils only)
This missile has a shorter range than the Harpoon missiles (see above), but
their guidance systems are reputed to be slightly more accurate than those
of the Harpoons. Also, they carry a 400 pound high explosive warhead. Use
the Gabriels against ships beyond gun range.
Exocet Missiles (Italian hydrofoils only)
A French missile, used effectively by Argentina in the Falklands war. The
Exocet is very similar in effect to the Harpoon missile, and appears in the
same location on the control panel in bridge view.
Your radar system's range is generally 40 miles, although it is greater
from the front or the back of the hydrofoil. You can take advantage of
this by turning the hydrofoil towards the target. Your hydrofoil is
represented by a flashing "blip" in the center of the display. If the blip
is not flashing, another vessel must be very close to you.
Some assignments involve the use of search helicopters. In such cases,
helicopters are controlled from the Operations Map (see Command Summary
Card). The same applies to convoy ships, where applicable.
Your hydrofoil is capable of operating even if it sustains damage. The
following outlines the different kinds of damage and the effect each has on
the hydrofoil's operation. Refer to Figure 3.
Gabriel Missiles Radar
| __|_ |-Cannon
| | | | | /
Engines Fuel Tank
Hull ___ / |_____| | | | \
Compartments \ | | | | | /
Figure 3: Damage Indicator
The hydrofoil's hull is separated into six watertight compartments. Light
damage (shown in yellow on the damage indicator, * see Figure 3, above) to
any or all of the six compartments does not affect the ship, but serves as
a warning that continued hits will cause heavy damage. Heavy damage (show
in red on damage indicator*) to a critical number of compartments can sink
your hydrofoil. This critical number varies among the different
hydrofoils, as follows: the PHM can sustain heavy damage to four
compartments before sinking, the Israeli Flagstaff II will sink after heavy
damage to three compartments. Note, however, that even with a critical
number of compartments heavily damaged, a hydrofoil can still remain afloat
while foilborne, but will sink only when hullborne. Note also that when
foilborne, more of your hull is exposed, increasing the probability that
enemy hits will damage it.
Class: OSA I/OSA II Manufactured by: U.S.S.R.
Type: Fast Attack Craft - Used by: Algeria, Bulgaria,
Missile Cuba, Egypt,
E. Germany, India,
Libya, Syria, Iraq,
Length (feet): 128
Tons Disp. (full load) 210/214*
Cruising speed (knots): 30
Max speed (knots): 38/40*
Guns: 2 Twin 30mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: 2 SS-N-2A Styx
Notes: The SS-N-22C version of the Styx
missile is six feet longer than the
SS-N-2A of OSA I, and has almost double
76 mm Cannon: Light damage may cause your gun to misfire; heavy damage will
disable it completely.
Radar: Light damage restricts your radar range to 20 miles; heavy damage
restricts the range to 10 miles. Even though your radar may be heavily
damaged, you still have a limited longer range view on your Operations Map,
which simulates spotting by binoculars to compensate for the damaged radar.
Chaff: With light damage, the chaff rockets may misfire, expending a round
in vain. With heavy damage, they will not work at all.
Missiles: With light damage, missiles may misfire; with heavy damage, they
will not work at all. The same applies to the gabriel missiles on the
Fuel Tanks: Light damage increases fuel drain; heavy damage increases it
even more. If you run out of fuel, your mission will end in failure. Keep
to low speeds if you are running out of fuel.
Engines: Light damage decreases your maximum speed. Heavy damage decreases
your maximum speed even more, sometimes to the point of rendering you
completely immobile. Note that with light damage you may still have enough
power to remain foilborne, but if you come down off your foils you may not
have enough power to get back up. This could result in difficult tactical
decisions in circumstances where you need to choose between staying
foilborne and maintaining a higher speed, and coming down off the foils to
slow down and conserve fuel.
You can operate your hydrofoil either from the Bridge or from the
Operations Map. To switch from one to the other, press V on the keyboard.
From the Bridge you can maneuver the hydrofoil, or select, aim and fire
your weapons. You can also adjust your radar scanning range from 2.5 miles
to 40 miles. From the Operations Map you can control your auxiliary
vessels (helicopters or a convoy of ships, where applicable), or you can
set your hydrofoil on a course using automatic pilot. Some operations are
available in either mode. Thus, from either the Bridge or the Operations
Map you can pause and restart proceedings, you can quit and select a new
mission, and you can speed up or slow down the passage of time. (You can
speed time up to 128 times; when you do so, every element is affected
equally). These are discussed up to 128 times; when you do so, every
element is affected equally). These are discussed in detail below.
Specific commands are given in the Command Summary Card.
Maneuvering the Hydrofoil: You can maneuver your hydrofoil with either the
keyboard or joystick. Moving the joystick forward speeds up the hydrofoil,
while moving it back slows it down. Moving the joystick right or left
moves the hydrofoil right or left. See your Command Summary Card for
keyboard equivalents. Note that maneuvering the hydrofoil manually from
the Bridge has the effect of disengaging the automatic pilot (see
discussion under Operations Map).
Aiming and Firing Weapons: You can also use the joystick to aim and fire
your weapons. Pressing the Spacebar toggles the joystick between
maneuvering the hydrofoil and aiming your weapons. To aim at a target, you
first need to select it from among the enemy craft within your radar range
by pressing T several times until the desired target is bracketed on your
radar screen. At that point the targeted vessel appears in the binocular
view at the top of the screen. To aim your gun, move the aiming cursor
(see Figure 1) so that it is over the target in the binocular view. Move
the joystick forward to move the cursor up, and move it back to move the
cursor down. Moving the joystick left or right moves the cursor left or
right. To fire a weapon, press the joystick fire button or Return on the
keyboard. You can correct your aim corrector and fire again. Note that
you only need to aim your gun. Missiles automatically go toward the ship
in the binocular view at the time of firing, while chaff affects all
incoming missiles depending on their distance from the hydrofoil. You can
select among the available weapons from the keyboard. See your Command
Summary Card for details.
Automatic Pilot: To set a course for your hydrofoil, first make sure that
the hydrofoil is selected (by pressing the appropriate key, see your
Command Summary Card). Move the crosshair to your destination point and
pressing key 1 through 5. Pressing 5 moves the hydrofoil to its
destination at full speed, while 1 moves the hydrofoil at its slowest
speed. If you already have a speed selected, you can press the joystick
button to move the hydrofoil to the new destination at the currently
selected speed. Pressing 0 stops the hydrofoil. When you return to the
Bridge, changing direction (with keyboard or joystick) disengages the
automatic pilot and returns you to manual control. You can, however,
change the hydrofoil's speed from the Bridge (by pressing keys 1 through 5)
without disengaging the automatic pilot.
Class: KOMAR Manufactured by: U.S.S.R.
Type: Fast Attack Craft - Used by: Cuba, Egypt, North
Missile Korea, Syria,
Length (feet): 88
Tons Disp. (full load) 85
Cruising speed (knots): 30
Max speed (knots): 40
Guns: Twin 25mm
Anti-Ship Missiles: 2 SS-N-2A Styx
Notes: This older class of ship has less
endurance and range than the OSA.
To re-engage automatic pilot, return to the Operations Map, select the
hydrofoil, then press the joystick button or select a speed as before.
Your hydrofoil will then move toward the previously selected destination.
Messages on the Bridge and Operations Map indicate current status of the
Controlling Auxiliary Craft: When you are in the Operations Map you can
also control the auxiliary craft that are available to you. Depending on
the assignment, these can include helicopters, or a convoy of ships. To
control an auxiliary craft, first select it by pressing the key for that
craft (see your Command Summary Card for details) and then move the
crosshair to the destination point. Press a key 1 through 5 to set the
auxiliary craft's speed and start it off towards the destination.
Auxiliary craft in the Operations Map can be identified by their icons. To
display the craft icons, press D. This changes the display from radar
circles (circles around each craft showing its radar range) to the vessel
icons. This feature is particularly useful if many enemies are nearby.
Time Compression: You can use time compression to speed up events in the
Operations Map until you get to the center of the action. You can then
slow events back down, or you can leave them speeded up. If you like, you
can play through the entire mission with time compressed up to 128 times
normal. If you compress time to more than eight times normal, any action
from the enemy (such as a missile or cannon shot) will automatically slow
it back down to eight times. This way you can use time compression to make
your assignments more challenging.
Part IV: Technical Data
(Prepared by Colonel Vernon Salisbury, Pegasus Hydrofoil Testcraft Master,
A: DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND BACKGROUND
During the second half of the 19th Century, Thomas Moy, an aeronautical
engineer, reasoned that by testing wing sections in water instead of air he
could observe and measure the forces acting upon them more accurately. In
1861, after attaching three sets of wings (or foils) to his experimental
craft's hull, he observed that it took only moderate speeds to lift his
craft out of the water.
Over the next 70 years several inventors presented widely varying ideas in
this area, although most were applied to seaplanes and not to marine
surface craft. The first craft which could
accurately be termed a hydrofoil was an experimental vessel built by
Professor Enrico Forlanini of Italy. Forlanini was an eminent airship
designer who turned to marine aircraft and boat building in the early
1900's. He discovered that a foil's lifting capability in water increased
with the square of the foil's forward speed. Thus, a foil moving at twice
its initial speed would produce four times as much lift. Form this
Forlanini deduced his "foil ladder" arrangement. He realized that by
placing foils in a ladder-like arrangement, he could raise the hull high
off the water, eliminating hull resistance almost entirely. This system
gave a ship not only constant lift but also gave it virtually constant drag
over a wide speed range. In 1906, his craft, driven by aircraft props,
achieved a speed of 44 mph, demonstrating the feasibility of his system.
Crollo and Ricaldoni. In 1907, General A. Crollo and O. Ricaldoni tested a
remarkably advanced vehicle, similar in design to Forlanini's. It was
driven by airplane propellers (with variable pitch at that) and was lifted
by three sets of foils, with the front foil in the form of a wide "V".
This was the predecessor of today's surface piercing foil designs. The
V-shaped front foil reduced drag and provided more stability than
Forlanini's machine. It reached a speed of 50 mph.
Alexander Graham Bell. These early craft were obviously faster and had
greater potential than displacement vessels of their day, but no more
development for military or commercial use was to be conducted for the next
30 years. Not even Alexander Graham Bell's HD-4 was able to achieve much
more than a speed record of 70.86 MPH. Back then, people simply had no
need to travel across the water at more than 40 mph.
Class: Small Algol Variant Manufactured by: U.S.A.
Type: Special Fast Cargo Used by: U.S.A.
Container Ship Length (feet): 250
Tons Disp. (full load) 2000
Cruising speed (knots): 20
Max speed (knots): 33
Notes: Special ship designed for rapid
movement of small, important cargo.
In the next 20 years hydrofoil development was all but forgotten, with the
exception of a German, Professor Tiejens, who carried out exhaustive
studies of foil reactions in waves. Another engineer, U. Grunberg of
France, studied the related problem of sensing ongoing waves and designing
a foil system which could make appropriate changes in lift to compensate
for wave size.
Von Schertel Supermar. Most of today's commercial hydrofoils are based on
a simple design by Baron Hans Von Schertel. He launched his first test
craft in 1928. Six years and six hydrofoils later his commercially
practical design caught the eye of Koln-Dusseldorf Steamship Company. They
placed their first order for a surface piercing hydrofoil in 1937 with
Gebruder Sachsenberg AG at Dassau, Germany. From this first commercial
order evolved the Schertal-Sachsenberg combine which was reborn in
Switzerland after World War Two. Supermar AG licensed nine out of ten
hydrofoil vessels built outside the Soviet Union. During the war German
hydrofoil patrol craft were built by Hitler and then taken over by the
Soviets. There are an estimated 1000 hydrofoils in the Soviet Union today.
The United States Navy became actively interested in hydrofoil development
in 1957. A small contract was given to Gibbs & Cox to convert a small Cris
Craft into a fully submerged foil system hydrofoil vessel from a design by
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technical progress in computers
and sensors for aircraft automatic control and the research previously
mentioned were combined to build and successfully operate this experimental
This research craft was named Sea Legs, and successfully "flew" from Boston
to Annapolis in one jump in the open sea along the Atlantic seaboard. This
seemingly effortless voyage inspired the Navy to become serious about the
military potential of the new type of hydrofoil ship.
Sea Legs' design was a canard configuration with one foil forward on the
centerline and with two foils aft attached to the outboard sides of the
transom. The rudder was attached to the aft edge of the forward strut.
Propulsion was a standard marine gasoline engine mounted forward in the
main salon of the cabin, connected to a very long propeller shaft so as to
achieve the lowest angle of attack for the propeller when foilborne. The
autopilot was a bread board electronic analog computer connected to a set
of ultrasonic height sensors mounted over the bow. A sensitive gyroscope
and accelerometers connected in turn to servo controlled hydraulic
actuators which adjusted the angles of the foil surfaces.
The height sensors measured the height of the waves just ahead of the
forward foil and instructed the autopilot to make corresponding changes to
compensate for the wave's subsurface orbital turbulence. The
accelerometers and gyro compensated for the other outside
disturbances and simply kept the ship on an even keel, or in this case well
balanced upright on its foils.
Sea Legs contributed to hydrofoil development in two very important
respects: (1) proving the fully submerged foil concept (2) the
determination of the United States Navy to pursue the development of fully
submerged foil systems for patrol and combat service to keep a jump ahead
of Soviet surface piercing hydrofoil ships. Incidentally, while the Navy
was funding Sea Legs, The Boeing Company built and tested Little Squirt,
the first water-jet propelled fully submerged hydrofoil research craft,
thereby perfecting their own system.
With the data and knowledge gained from Sea Legs and Boeing's Little Squirt
the United States Navy started to build the first operational hydrofoil
ship. In 1960, the Navy announced a contract with Boeing to finish detail
design and to produce and test the Bureau of Ships preliminary design of
PCH-1 Patrol Craft Hydrofoil One, a prototype. It was envisioned and
designed as a patrol hydrofoil whose major mission would be interdiction of
high speed enemy nuclear submarines.
PCH-1 Highpoint became a research and development hydrofoil operated by the
Hydrofoil Special Trials Unit out of The Naval Shipyard, Bremerton,
Washington. Her sea-going ability was remarkable in the open ocean off the
Oregon and Washington coastlines, and she once crossed the bar at the
entrance to the Columbia River while foilborne, in sea conditions running
over 30 feet. Destroyers and other vessels crossing this bar under similar
conditions had taken hours to complete the transit, but Highpoint safely
completed the bar crossing in a matter of minutes.
Class: Kaman Seasprite Manufactured by: U.S.A.
Type: LAMPS 1 helicopter Used by: U.S.A.
Length (feet): 38
Take-off weight (lbs): 12,800
Cruising speed (knots): 130
Max speed (knots): 143
Anti-Ship Missiles: Can carry torpedoes
or depth charges
Notes: LAMPS stands for Light Airborne
Multi-Purpose System, and is a U.S. Navy
designation for their ship-based
AGEH-1 Plainview is the largest hydrofoil in the world, according to the
Guinness Book of Records. It was built as a research hydrofoil and made
notable contributions in electronics and data gathering before being placed
on the inactive list.
PGH-1 Flagstaff and PGH-2 Tucumcari. These Patrol Gunboats were designed
and built by Grumman and Boeing to the same specifications. PGH-1
Flagstaff was built as a conventional hydrofoil system (two foils forward
and one aft) similar to a conventional airplane. Propulsion was through a
super cavitating prop with its gears and shafts in the aft strut. PGH-2
Tucumcari was a canard configuration with water-jet propulsion. Both
hydrofoils met or exceeded the specifications and were deployed to Viet Nam
with excellent war records. PGH-1 Flagstaff was placed on the inactive
list after testing by the United States Coast Guard. PGH-2 was grounded on
a reef in the Caribbean and was stricken from the active list.
Both vessels were the inspiration for further developments. The Flagstaff
II designed and built for the Israelis is a bigger and more capable design
based upon the experience gained on the PGH-1. It featured better
navigation, guns, and missiles.
The PHM-1 Pegasus series Hydrofoil Ships were ordered, cancelled, and then
reordered by Congress. Based on the design and experience of the PGH-2
Tucumcari, and upon the experience gained from both peacetime and wartime
fleet exercises, they feature better systems, equipment, living quarters,
and more effective guns and missiles.
The Pegasus class hydrofoil is an all weather vessel capable of performing
a surface warfare role. The space and weight margins allow the addition of
weapons or sensors for anti-submarine and anti-air warfare. The ship can
be deployed anywhere in the world, replenished by the fleet or by a
commercial tanker with appropriate fuel, and logistically supported.
Functioning in a fleet task group, PHM hydrofoils provide high search
effectiveness, concentration of attack firepower, and versatility in the
choice and location of the attack platform. It is a significant threat to
an enemy task group, hit and run terrorists boats, drug smuggling, gun
running, or any larger more expensive naval vessel attempting to operate
PHM Tactical Concept. The hydrofoil ship is an ideal low value barrier to
deploy between high value vessels during tense pre-war tactical
maneuvering, before the war opens into full scale hostilities. It can
perform a "tattle tale" function by keeping enemy ships under close
surveillance. The fire power of its missiles is equivalent to a battleship
or cruiser and its speed permits a quick counterstrike reaction. If enemy
missiles are detected in the air, PHM can deflect them with chaff away from
itself or other higher value fleet assets. On board communications permit
coordination of attack or defense with other fleet assets, such as ships,
aircraft, or submarines. Space aboard is limited but sufficient to
transport and land small counter insurgency units, such as seal teams, frog
men, etc. PHM hydrofoils can
routinely replenish at sea from auxiliary replenishment vessels, FFG
frigates or LSD Landing Ships. The Mobile Logistic Group supports these
hydrofoils from mobile type containers both aboard ship or ashore. Their
homeport is Key West Florida, where they keep watch in the Straits of
Florida, Straits of Yucatan, Caribbean Sean, and the Gulf of Mexico.
For more information, see Part B, The NATO TAG Hydrofoils.
B: THE NATO TAG HYDROFOILS
NATO has three types of hydrofoils in its TAG task force: the PHM Pegasus,
the Israeli Flagstaff II, and the Italian Sparviero. The following
technical reference guide provides information in addition to the Operating
The NATO Hydrofoil is an all-weather, high-speed, sea-going weapons
platform. It is designed to operate offensively against hostile surface
combatants and other surface craft, and to conduct surveillance,
screening, a nd special operations.
The NATO Hydrofoil uses both hullborne and foilborne propulsion. These can
be used together or separately, as required.
Hullborne: Two Motoren-und Turbinen-Union (MTU) 8V331TC81 Mercedes Diesel
engines drive two Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company waterjets with steering
nozzles and reversers.
Foilborne: A single General Electric LM2500 Gas Turbine drives and Aerojet
waterjet propulsion system. Sparviero utilizes a GE LM 1500 Gas Turbine.
The Flagstaff II Gas Turbine drives a super-cavitating propeller through
gear boxes at the top and bottom of the single aft foil and strut system.
The Aerojet waterjet propulsors are axial flow units developing thrust in
the nozzles from the flow of sea water. The intakes for the hullborne
units are in the hull. The intakes for the foilborne unit are in the front
of each pod at the junction of each foil and its strut on the aft two
foils. When the foils are retracted the intakes are at the hull where the
strut mates with the hull. Sparviero utilizes a single waterjet propulsor.
The air intakes are on the side of the deckhouse, with demisters to entrap
salt and sea water, thereby preventing damage to the turbine or diesel
engines. The exhausts for both the diesel and the turbine generators are
through the small stack unit aft of the deckhouse.
Electrical as well as hydraulic power is generated by two turbine
generators. Hydraulic power is developed on the auxiliary power units by
two Vickers hydraulic pumps. Hydraulic actuators
apply the power to control the nozzles, reversers, strut retraction, bow
thruster, and foilborne controls. Pressurized reservoirs supply the
hydraulic fluid required.
Hydrofoils are underwater wings, designed to "fly" in the water, in the
same way as airplane wings fly in air. Because water is much more dense
than air, small hydrofoils can lift PHM size ships. Hydrofoils come in two
varieties - Surface Piercing and Fully Submerged (see Figure 3). Surface
Piercing hydrofoils use a large V-shaped foil at the front and a smaller
one aft. Fully Submerged hydrofoils use foils that extend six to eight
feet below the surface. Each type has its advantages. The Surface
Piercing hydrofoils are more susceptible to surface turbulence, but are
more stable when executing high speed turns. The Fully Submerged type, on
the other hand, can provide a smooth ride even in heavy seas (up to 15 feet
or more), but are less stable at high speed turns. Boeing's Automatic
Control System (ACS), which make corrections through trailing-edge control
surfaces (similar to the ailerons on an aircraft wing), has virtually
eliminated any turning instability. The Fully Submerged type is the one
that is used by the U.S. Navy on the PHM Pegasus as well as by the
Sparviero and Flagstaff II hydrofoils, while the Russian hydrofoils are
predominately Surface Piercing. Either kind provides quick response and a
maneuvering capability exceeding that of most modern jet airplanes.
\ / | \ / | | |
\ | / | | |
-------------- / \ --- / \
Surface Piercing Fully Submerged
Figure 4: Varieties of Foils
Canard configuration of the hydrofoils (one forward and two aft) improves
the rough water capability of the PHM by allowing the aft flaps to control
roll even if the forward foil loses lift. Sparviero also utilizes a canard
configuration. Flagstaff II uses a conventional hydrofoil arrangement of
two hydrofoils paired forward, and one aft at the transome. This puts the
foilborne propulsion propeller on the centerline in the water where the
propeller wake cannot interfere with the flow of the water over the foils.
Foilborne operation is smooth and easy to perform. After setting the depth
(see Note), simply advance the throttle. The ship accelerates, lifts
automatically to the ordered foil depth, and increases to the cruise speed.
The throttle setting controls the cruise speed.
Note: The depth is set automatically in simulation.
Hydrodynamics of the hydrofoils is designed to keep the ship operating
within its speed and maneuver capability, called its operating envelope.
Water flow over the hydrofoils must be kept smooth and clean, as is the
case with airplane wings.
NATO Hydrofoil ships use standard navigation procedures. Foilborne
navigation at high speed is safer and more accurately conducted if the
track is plotted beforehand. Autopilot control is a function of the gyro
compass and the control system. Steering is standard as for all ships at
sea, but the planned track is usually done well in advance of getting
underway. Keeping on track even at high speed is then much easier.
Rapid radar plotting and calculating is required on hydrofoil ships, to
avoid incidents and collisions which could ruin your whole day. It is
important to keep radar surveillance coordinated with lookouts watching
forward when at foilborne speeds.
Military units are in contact with each other and higher authority at all
times. Communication is selected on the basis of the requirements in
effect at the time. For example, radio links in plain language are used
bridge-to-bridge between warships and freighters, tankers, fishermen, or
yachts. Orders, or other warship information is scrambled. In addition,
running lights and light signals are standard for international or inland
waters, according to the rules of the road. Flashing signal lights in
Morse code may be sailor talk between signalmen or official communications.
Flag signal communication, frequently called wig-wag or semaphore, is
another communication which is official, and allows sailors to communicate
between ships, or men between portholes. Flag signal hoists have been used
for centuries, and still serve the same purpose.
Telephone lines are the first to be connected ashore when making port, and
the last to be disconnected when getting underway. Telephones, intercoms,
and announcing systems are standard throughout warships.
Compartmentation provides protection from fire or flooding and a means of
containing damage to permit damage control parties to put out a fire or
repair a hole in the hull. Damage control parties are trained to take
action as the situation requires, even if the ship is still engaged in
combat. Dewatering each compartment is effected by pumps with waterproof
motors. Auxiliary hand held pumps assist or replace compartment pumps.
Shoring to hold bulkheads or plug holes in the hull can be placed in
position by the damage control party.
Hullborne the PHM is a twin water-jet which handles like a twin screw
vessel. It is assisted by a bow thruster and can be maneuvered laterally
into a tight berth. Sparviero has a single water-jet. Foilborne ship
handing is similar to standard ship handling, with conning orders to a
helmsman. It can also be handled like a speed boat, with the Captain on
the helm driving it like a sports car. Close encounters at high speed call
for excellent coordination between the Conning Officer and the Helmsman.
Ship Operation Planning
Speed, Time, and Distance are related by the equation 60D=ST, where
Distance is in nautical miles, Speed is in knots, and Time is in minutes.
Time is also measured by fuel burned when foilborne, or hullborne. Weather
and Sear are not significant operational factors unless the wind and sea
become very stormy with very high seas. Tides and drafts are of concern
entering and leaving the harbor or crossing river bars. Foilborne and
foils down operation requires water depth sufficient to land and navigate
on the hull, with the draft of foils extended; foils up only requires keep
clearance unless the bottom will damage the waterjets.
Takeoff and landing require sufficient space to get foilborne, either a
straight-a-way like an airplane or in a turn. The time to take off in a
turn is increased, but the time to land in a turn is decreased. Sufficient
sea room is necessary in either case.
Sea Water Cooling
The sea water even in the tropics keeps the machinery and equipment from
overheating and malfunctioning. It is bled out of the propulsion systems
and fed through heat exchangers in the ship. It cools the gun barrel
during firing, allowing continuous rapid firing.
Ship Maintenance Cycles
On board maintenance is accomplished by the crew, while periodic
maintenance is done by the Mobile Logistic Support Group. Trouble shooting
in port is effected by both. Maintenance is cycled to keep the ship
operational and ready at all times. Inspections are performed on a
scheduled basis and whenever any indication of unusual performance is
noted. Squawks of "equipment out" are red tagged. Each is then considered
individually and on the basis of the operational requirements for the next
Naval Rifle, 76 mm Oto Melara, rapid fire water-cooled cannon mounted on
the forward deck.
Harpoon Missiles, canister loaded, mounted on launchers at the transom
aimed port and starboard over the shoulder.
RBOC Chaff, mortar loaded, mounted on the top of the deck house aft of the
pilot house and mast.
Fire Control System, Mk 92 Gun fire control system, and the
surface-to-surface missile fire control system, mounted in the deck house
Combat Information Center.
Ammunition, small arms, and pyrotechnics are stored in a locked magazine
for use in hand-to-hand combat and crew security.
Casualty control: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, applies
to almost every situation. Cross training of members of the crew in
trouble shooting, fighting fires, repairing battle damage, and controlling
flooding is essential in small size high speed combatants.
Collision with friendly vessels can be avoided by close watch ahead, radar
warning, and rapid plotting of the course and speed of vessels forward of
the beam. The exceptional turning speed and small radius enable hydrofoils
to dodge around obstacles other ships may not be able to avoid hitting.
Intentional collision with enemy vessels and the use of the stainless steel
foils as can openers along the sides of thin steel ships is a last ditch,
command decision, with high risk of loss of the hydrofoil.
Figure 5: PHM Pegasus
Command Summary Card
PHM Pegasus is a simulation requiring both strategic and tactical ability.
The object is to complete each mission by achieving its main objective in as
short a time as possible. See your Manual for details on the assignments.
Hydrofoil operation is by means of keyboard and joystick. You can use either
to control the hydrofoil's movement, weapons aim ing and firing, and any
auxiliary craft. Use the keyboard to pause and resume play, to increase or
decrease time compression, to switch between the Bridge and the Operations
Map, and to select weapons or auxiliary craft. Two main viewing "modes" are
available at anytime: the Bridge and the Operations Map. The key table on
the inside pages shows the effect of each keystroke under each of the two
Boot your system with DOS (refer to your DOS user manual for instructions).
If you intend to play PHM Pegasus from a floppy drive, make a backup copy
using DISKCOPY. If you intend to play PHM Pegasus from a hard drive:
Insert PHM Pegasus in Drive A and use the installation program called
Start the installation program by typing PHMINST at the A>, followed by a
space and then the appropriate hard drive designation. Valid entries are C:,
D:, E:, or R.
Example: To install PHM Pegasus on Drive C, type: PHMINST C: (press Return).
After you've made your backup disk, be sure to put the original disk away
for safekeeping. Start the program by typing HF (for Hydrofoil), followed by
a space and then the appropriate graphics mode. The various graphics modes
are: C - CGA, 8 - Black & White (see Note page 2), E - EGA, T- Tandy
Graphics Mode, and H - Monochrome Graphics Mode. CGA is the default.
Example: To start PHM Pegasus with EGA, type: HF E (press Return).
After the title screen appears, you will be requested to enter ship
identification information. When you answer the question successfully, you
may begin sailing (see PHM Pegasus Recognition Drill).
Note: Although black and white will work on any CGA monitor, it is intended
primarily for use on laptop computers. GGA mode works on laptops as well;
compare the two modes for best results.
PHM PEGASUS RECOGNITION DRILL
To play PHM Pegasus, you'll need to enter specific information about some
fo the different enemy fleet vessels. A silhouette of a particular ship
appears onscreen, and you're requested to enter the appropriate speed,
weight or length for the vessel shown. Ship information and silhouettes
are provided throughout the manual; page through the manual until you find
the ship that matches the onscreen image. You'll see the requested
information next to the ship's silhouette. Type in the correct answer and
press Return. Permission to sail is now granted. If you fail to enter the
correct value, you can either press Return to view the Demo or press any
other key to escape to DOS. Type in HF and your graphics mode code when
you return to the prompt, then press Return to try again.
KEYBOARD COMMAND SUMMARY
KEY: EFFECT: Operations
Bridge Mode Map Mode
P Pause/Resume Play Same
Ctrl-Q Quit scenario Same
V Toggles view between Same
Operations Map and Bridge
+ Each press doubles time rate Same
up to 128 x real time
- Each press halves time rate Same
down to real time (1 x)
N Returns time rate to real Same
time (1 x)
S Toggles sound on/off Same
Arrows* Aim weapons up, left, Moves destination
right, down cursor
1-5* Sets hydrofoil's maximum Sets maximum speed for
speed hydrofoil or auxiliary
O* Stops hydrofoil Stops hydro/auxiliary
D NA Toggles between radar
circle and vessel icons
F1* NA Selects Hydrofoil
F2* NA Selects Helicopter 1**
F3* NA Selects Helicopter 2**
* accessible through the joystick (see the Joystick Control section)
** when available; see the manual for more details
F4* NA Selects Convoy Ship**
R/CTRL-R Each press halves/doubles NA
radar scan from 2.5 miles
T/CTRL-T Selects targets for view in NA
W Toggles through available NA
6 Selects cannon NA
7 Selects chaff rocket NA
8 Selects missiles NA
(Harpoon or Exocet)
9 Selects Gabriel missiles** NA
Spacebar* Toggles between maneuver*** NA
and weapons aiming modes
Return* Fire currently selected NA
Comma* Turn Hydrofoil left NA
Period* Turn Hydrofoil right NA
* accessible through the joystick (see the Joystick Control section)
** when available; see the manual for more details
*** only effective on machines with joysticks installed
You can use the joystick either to control the hydrofoil or to aim and fire
your weapons. From the Bridge, in Maneuver mode, you can control the
hydrofoil's movement by moving the joystick left or right, and its speed by
moving it forward or back. In Aiming mode, use the joystick to move the
aiming cursor around the binocular view. Fire your weapons in either mode
by pressing the fire button. You can toggle between Maneuver and Aiming
mode by pressing the Spacebar (on 2-button joysticks, press the second
button). From the Operations Map, use your joystick to move the
destination cursor, and press the fire button to set off on your course.
Use the second fire button to select the craft you want to control
(pressing the second button repeatedly toggles through the available
TRAVELLING ON AUTOPILOT
At different points during a scenario, you may wish to set your craft on
autopilot, then sit back and enjoy the view. Of course, setting a
destination is a crucial step in going to autopilot. Use the Function keys
(F1 - F4) to select the craft you intend to control. If no course has been
set, a cursor appears directly above your craft. Use the keyboard cursor
keys or the joystick to move the cursor around to various points on the
map, then press Return to specify a destination. Now set your speed and
begin to sail (or fly) in the direction of your selected destination.
Autopilot is automatically disengaged when a ship's course is changed
manually in Bridge view.
As you sail through any of the scenarios in PHM Pegasus, your craft may
receive damage if hit by fire from enemy vessels. The extend of the damage
will depend upon the type of weapon scoring the hit, as well as the size of
your own craft. At screen right (from the bridge view), you see two
diagrams of your craft; the top image shows functions from a side view,
while the bottom picture shows a top-down view of the hydrofoil's hull
divided into six watertight compartments. Damage, when taken, registers
simultaneously on both the function and the compartment views of your
craft. Your ability to perform a certain task may be hampered if you take
on damage to compartments crucial to your ship's operation.
On an undamaged hydrofoil, compartments and functions appear as solid white
or yellow blocks (depending on which graphics mode you have). Light damage
to any of the compartments and functions results in a dithered,
checkerboard pattern; although light damage won't affect your ship's
handling, it does serve as a warning that continued hits will cause serious
harm to your vessel. Heavy damage results in compartments on your damage
indicator turning black; damage of this type to several of the six
compartments may result in the sinking of your hydrofoil. Different
hydrofoils can absorb different amounts of damage before sinking. For more
information, consult the Hull Damage section of your manual.