The SEVEN CITIES of GOLD
[ Inside ]
SOME FAMOUS EXPLORERS and their EXPLOITS
* 1492 - Columbus lands on San Salvador (Watlings Island). * 1494 -
Dan Bunten is so befuddled by a storm that he "discovers" Europe. The
Crown is not amused. * 1500 - Pedro Cabral tries to reach India and,
blown off course, discovers Brazil. * 1502 - Bill Bunten achieves the
rank of Captain General for his rapid (not to mention vicious)
conquest of the Mayan Peninsula. * 1504 - Columbus returns from his
fourth voyage, still believing he had discovered the Orient, and not a
New World. * 1511 - Dan Bunten earns the rank of Vice Governor, and
the nickname of "Dealing Dan" for his trading exploits. * 1513 - Ponce
de Leon discovers Florida. Eight years later, a colonization
expedition back to his discovery saw him mortally wounded. * 1519 -
Cortes begins the conquest of Mexico. He recruited 580 soldiers and
took 16 horses, 10 cannons, 4 falcons, 13 arquebusses and 32 crossbows
on his expedition. * 1521 - Bill Bunten is named Governor of Mexico by
the Court, and persona non grata by the Aztecs. * 1530 - Dan Bunten is
named Governor General of Peru by the Court, and Man of the Year by
the Spanish Chamber of Commerce for trading his 20,000th good for gold.
* 1533 - Pizarro takes his first step in the conquest of Peru by
treacherously seizing and murdering Atahualpa, the Incan ruler (who
had received Pizarro with offers of friendship). Pizarro himself was
assassinated in 1541. * 1540 - Dan and Bill Bunten join forces and
establish one last mission. Both achieve the rank of Viceroy and
decide to rest on their laurels.
[ Graphic omitted: Screen shot of ship icon at sea near some islands.
FEB. - 1496
THE EXPEDITION IS ABOARD 4 SHIPS.
MEN 96 GOODS 300
FOOD 39 GOLD 0
Caption: Dan Bunten gets lost in a fierce storm. ]
[ Graphic omitted: Screen shot of natives chasing explorer sprite on
MAY - 1492
THE EXPEDITION IS ON LAND
MEN 93 GOODS 270
FOOD 5 GOLD 0
Caption: Bill Bunten is asked to leave an Aztec city. ]
[ Graphic omitted: Black and white photograph of four men sitting on a
bench against a light-paneled building, three of which are looking
attentively at a newspaper, one of which is holding a small dog. The
headline of the Arkansas Gazette reads, "M.U.L.E. Unveiled. Signal of
Extraterrestrial Land Boom?" The man on the left and the dog are
looking away, apparently not interested in the news.
Caption: Bunten brothers and friends establish a mission in the Ozarks.
Also from Ozark Softscape and Electronic Arts:
M.U.L.E. -- A game in which up to four players attempt to settle a
distant planet with the so-called help of a mule-like machine they all
learn to hate.
Best Multi-Player Game of 1983 -- Electronic Games Magazine
Best Strategy Game of 1983 -- Infoworld
[ Back Cover ]
1492 - 1540 The Age of Discovery, Exploration and Conquest. The Stage
of History Belonged to Spain. Now it Belongs to You.
SET SAIL from Spain. Outfit your expedition and head west into the
unknown. And if you make it back with gold and maps, the Court might
make you a Governor General or even a Viceroy.
DISCOVER the New World. Explore the Mississippi and the Amazon. The
Great Lakes. The Straits of Magellan. Hidden gold mines. And 200
different native settlements, from small tribes of hunters and farmers
to the mighty cities of the Aztec and Incan empires.
AZTEC AND INCA cities have the most gold. But how But how will you get
it? Trade? Trickery? Treachery? Conquest? The natives are the key to
your success. And a mirror for your soul.
OVER 2800 SCREENS represent the worlds you'll explore, building
computer drawn maps as you go. In the historical game you'll create an
accurate map of the geography and populations of 16th Century North,
South, and Central America. And then, when you're ready ...
RANDOM CONTINENTS. Face what the conquistadors faced. Ask your
computer to dream up New Worlds, worlds never before seen by anyone.
Then test yourself against the utterly unknown as gold and glory, out
there somewhere, draw you even deeper into an incredible fantasy of
your own creation.
[ Graphic omitted: Screen shot of ship docked next to Outfitter Dec. -
[ Graphic omitted: Screen shot of expedition on the coast near their
ship and a native village.
APR. - 1492
THE EXPEDITION IS ON LAND.
MEN 99 GOODS 300
FOOD 4 GOLD 79
TERRAIN: PLAIN ]
[ Graphic omitted: Screen shot of expedition in a native establishment.
MAY - 1492
THE EXPEDITION IS ON LAND.
MEN 93 GOODS 270
FOOD 6 GOLD 0
AMAZE THE NATIVES
(PRESS BUTTON TO SELECT OPTION) ]
Software (c) 1984 Ozark Softscape. Package design (c) 1984 Electronic
Arts. Simultaneously published in Canada and the U.S.A. Screen photos
represent Atari version only. Others may vary. Apple is a registered
trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of
Atari, Inc., a Warner Communications Company. Commodore is a
registered trademark of Commodore, Inc. No part of this product or any
output of this product may be offered for sale without express written
permission from Electronic Arts.
Special thanks to Ms. L.A. Strickland and the Office of Arts and
Libraries, Government Art Collection of London, for use of the artwork
which is reproduced on this package cover.
About Our Company. We're an association of electronic artists who
share a common goal. We want to fulfill the potential of personal
computing. That's a tall order. But with enough imagination and
enthusiasm we think there's a good chance for success. Out products,
like this game, are evidence of our intent. If you'd like to get
involved, please write us at: Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus Drive, San
Mateo, CA 94403.
Electronic Arts provides a limited ninety day warranty on the
recording media. See limited warranty statement enclosed. The warranty
does not apply to the software programs themselves, which are provided
The end of the Project 64 etext of the Seven Cities of Gold software
The Project 64 etext of the Seven Cities of Gold playing instructions.
How to Play Seven Cities of Gold Commodore 64
Seven Cities is a game of discovery. The instructions on this card
will help you get started by telling you how to create a map disk and
how to make one complete trip to and from the New World. You may then
turn to the manual (inside the front cover of the package) if you want
additional hints and information.
1. MAKE A HISTORICAL MAP DISK -- Turn on the disk drive, turn on the
computer and insert side 2 of your prograrm disk (i.e., put the disk
in upside down). Type LOAD "EA",8,1 and press RETURN. Side 2 contains
the map you want to copy as well as the copy program itself, so when
you see the message, "Insert the disk you want to copy from and press
'space'...", just press the space bar. When you see the message,
"Insert the disk you want to copy to and press 'space'...", insert a
blank disk. Continue following the prompt instructions as they appear
(remembering that side 2 of the program disk is the disk you're
copying from) until you see the message, "Good copy...".
2. LOAD THE PROGRAM -- Turn on the drive, turn on the computer and
insert side 1 of the program disk. Type Load "EA",8,1 and press
RETURN. Once the music starts, you may press f7 at any time to load
the Seven Cities program. Remove the program disk, insert your map
disk and press f7 again when the prompt tells you to. Then make sure
your joystick is in port 2 and follow the on screen directions for
using it to choose a level.
3. SET SAIL -- Use the joystick to move to the left to your ship.
(Hold down the button to move faster.) At sea, set course (and
"automatic pilot") by pressing the button while you push the joystick
in the direction you want to go. Study the screen border for
information about the passage of time and your status. Note to
novices: Set your course due west when leaving Europe and you will
soon come to a very interesting island.
4. LAND HO! -- Sail in close and press the button. Use the joystick
to move the highlight over "Drop Stuff Off" and press the buffon again.
Now use the joystick to transfer men, food and goods from the ships
to a land expedition. (To move all of an item, hold the buffon down as
you move the stick right or left.) When you're ready, move the stick
up until "leave" appears and press the button.
5. EXPLORING -- On land and in villages, pressing the button while
moving changes your speed, pressing it while at rest produces an
options menu. If you choose the view map option, your position on the
map is approximately in the center.
6. NATIVES -- Villages are marked for novices. Others must stand
still and look for the blinking light that signifies a village
location. Once Inside, look for the chief in the village center,
being careful not to bump into too many inhabitants unless you want to
fight. If you get to trade, look on the bottom of the screen for
information about prices and how many goods you have.
7. RETURN HOME -- Try the court for rewards, your home for a status
report, the outfitters for new men and supplies, the pub to save what
you've accomplished, then set sail again.
CREATING A RANDOM CONTINENT MAP DISK -- Start up the program as though
you were going to play, then press f3 instead of f7 and follow the
instructions as they appear on the screen. The creation process will
take as long as 20 minutes.
D - discovers everything, if you press it while in your home in Europe.
f1 - returns you to the point where the program asks for a map disk.
Space Bar - pauses and resumes the game.
IMPORTANT -- Seven Cities uses the disk drive frequently. Do not open
the drive door during play.
Electronic Arts warrants to the original purchaser of this computer
softwore product that the recording medium on which the software
programs are recorded will be free from defects in materials and
workmanship for ninety days from the date of purchase. Defective
media returned by the purchaser during that ninety day period will be
replaced without charge, provided that the returned media have not
been subjected to misuse, damage or excessive wear. Following the
initial ninety day warranty period, defective media will be replaced
for a replacement fee of $7.50.
Defective media should be returned to:
390 Swift Avenue
South San Francisco, CA 94080
in protective packaging, accompanied by (1) proof of purchase, (2) a
brief statement describing the defect, (3) a $7.,50 check (if beyond
the initial ninetyday warranty period), and (4) your return address.
WHAT IS NOT COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY
THIS WARRANTY DOES NOT APPLY TO THE SOFWARE PROGRAMS THEMSELVES. THE
PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS."
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER ORAL OR
WRITTEN. EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO NINETY DAYS FROM THE DATE OF
PURCHASE. ELECTRONIC ARTS SHALL NOTBE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or
consequential damages or limitations on how long an implied warranty
lasts, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
other rights which vary from state to state. Address all
correspondence to, Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus Drive, San Mateo,
California 94403. Or call us at (415) 572-ARTS.
Unless identified otherwise, all programs and documentation are (c)
1983 Electronic Arts.
The end of the Project 64 etext of the Seven Cities of Gold playing
The Project 64 etext of the Seven Cities of Gold Manual
The SEVEN CITIES of GOLD
[ Graphic omitted: Picture of galleon full sail. ]
ELECTRONIC ARTS RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PRODUCT
DESCRIBED IN THIS MANUAL AT ANY TIME AND WITHOUT NOTICE. THIS MANUAL
IS COPYRIGHTED, ALL RIGHTS ARE RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS MANUAL MAY
BE COPIED, REPRODUCED, TRANSLATED OR REDUCED TO ANY ELECTRONIC MEDIUM
OR MACHINE READABLE FORM WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF
ELECTRONIC ARTS, 2755 CAMPUS DRIVE, SAN MATEO, CALIFORNIA 94403.
ELECTRONIC ARTS MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH
RESPECT TO THIS MANUAL OR WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE DESCRIBED IN
THIS MANUAL, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR
ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS." ELECTRONIC
ARTS MAKES CERTAIN LIMITED WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO DEFECTIVE
RECORDING MEDIA. PLEASE SEE THE ELECTRONIC ARTS LIMITED WARRANTY
ENCLOSED WITH THIS PRODUCT.
SOFTWARE (c) 1984 OZARK SOFTSCAPE.
MANUAL WRITTEN BY ARTHUR CHANDLER AND DAVID GRADY.
MANUAL DESIGN BY WILLIAM GIN.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prelude - page 2
In Europe - pages 2-3
The Expedition - pages 3-4
Natives - pages 5-6
Advanced Play - page 7
Bibliography - page 8
Appendix: Basic Joystick Control - page 9
[ Graphic omitted: Sketch of globe, map, open and closed books, quill
pens, and compass. ]
ONCE, in a tavern on the waterfront, an old salt whispered to you the
tale of the Seven Bishops -- Christian men who had been blown far off
course into an unknown realm and who established seven Kingdoms whose
splendor ranked with the reign of Solomon. Since that time you have
dreamed of little else.
Now at long last you have been granted the resources necessary to
mount an expedition. To be sure, the Court's ministers are interested
only in surpassing Portugal's maritime strength and controlling
commerce to and from the Orient. They do not know of your real
motives. But no matter. The expedition is yours to command, and you
feel certain that adventure beyond all imagining, and riches beyond
all dreams of avarice, are in your grasp.
The Court -- Not every visit to the palace will fill your heart with
the same exultation as the first. Nevertheless, here you must return
- for recognition of your accomplishments, for the glory and power of
titles, perhaps for more gold desperately needed to continue your
search. Alas, need alone will not guarantee another audience to any
Home -- Here, in private, you may contemplate your successes (or lick
your wounds) and study the maps you've created on your journeys. Here
you may also judge the progress you're making toward your goals - how
much land and how many rivers you've explored, how many natives you've
encountered, and how many special landmarks (great lakes, lush jungles,
etc.) you've found.
Finally, you may learn how many missions you've established and how
much more gold you've found than you've spent.
The Court considers all the categories listed, except missions and
lives, in granting titles. The highest rank, Viceroy, is reserved for
those who can achieve an overall rating of at least 50% by 1540.
(Losing an expedition completely -- dying -- costs you the maps and
discoveries made since the last time you stopped by the pub. It also
costs you the opportunity to get future credit for all those
discoveries save the discovery of land, and you lose a year and a half
of your valuable time.)
The Outfitters -- It is here that you will spend your gold to equip
and provision your expeditions. As your experience grows, learn to
choose effectively among the ways you can invest your wealth. Do you
plan to trade? How many goods will you need? Do you aim to conquer?
What size army must you assemble? Can you find food? How much should
you take? Find the answers that fit your style of exploration. Or
prepare yourself for an unhappy relationship with the Court and for
expeditions barely able to survive - hardly the marks of explorers
destined to become Viceroys.
Food is bought and bartered for in relation to the number of men in
your expedition. Decide on the number of men you want first, then on
how many weeks' worth of food you want for them. To get a feel for
this relationship, play around with the two quantities the first few
times you're given the opportunity.
The Pub -- Wise conquistadors will stop by here after every trip to
record their maps and discoveries. Losing an expedition and all the
men and gold it's carrying is frustrating. Losing also all the maps
and discoveries you made on your last three trips is heartrending.
The Voyage -- When you leave port, mark well the indications of your
voyage and how they continually change. On the screen window, north
is always at the top, west to the left. At the top of the screen you
see the month and year and the number of vessels still in your
expedition. To the left is the size of your army and the number of
weeks you can feed that many mouths with the food on hand. To the
right is the ledger of your cargo of goods and gold. At the bottom is
your speed and the depth of the water.
Your ship's cartographer can help you but little on this part of your
search. Choose the "view map" option to learn your latitude and pay
attention to the passage of time. By such dead reckoning you I learn
to cross the ocean with the least expense of food and life.
There are many perils in the uncharted waters beyond Spain. Men die
of scurvy or of storms in which no one can hear their last cries for
help. Those same storms can blow you far off course and cost you
vital time. Your supply of food dwindles as you ply your way across
the vast ocean. Wander too long in search of landfall, and you will
From The Historical Record
Columbus' critics were right. If there had been no American continent,
no Spanish fleet of that era could have completed the ten thousand
mile expedition across the Atlantic to Japan. They couldn't carry
The food they could carry was no treat - a grim mixture of tough salt
meat, hardtack, and dried vegetables. Meals were cooked in a wooden
firebox embedded in a heap of sand on deck, sour wine and stale water
completed the repast.
Discovery and Exploration -- Bring your ships into safe mooring
carefully and learn from your costly mistakes. Resolve not to lose
more ships by inattentively running aground or to the same shoals or
shallows. Remember also that if you leave your ships unattended while
you set off on long journeys, the sailors who man the ships (who are
not included in your roster count) just might sail away before your
As you move over the land think of all who will bless your name for
your discoveries. The Court and merchants want gold and trade;
sailors, other explorers and scholars will be eager to see your maps.
Others in the Universities will be anxious to hear of the surface of
the land and of the people who live in it. And the Holy Church is
ever solicitous to save unenlightened souls.
The Church has a powerful ally in your need for food and someone to
help carry it. Unless you find and learn to deal with some local
inhabitants, you're not going to get very far in your quest for the
fabulously wealthy cities you hope to find.
1. Imagine a world without roads and you'll begin to grasp the
importance of rivers to the explorers in the 16th Century. Your own
progress also depends on your use of rivers - a moderate pace on a
river moves you as fast as a reckless pace on land.
2. Your computer will build maps for you as you go. Consult them
frequently. (Your position is always approximately in the center.) You
want to build pictures in your head (and perhaps even keep Journal
notes) of what happened where. Your goal is to be able to find your
way back to useful places and avoid dangerous ones. (One screen
measures 120 miles on a side on the exploration surface and 960 miles
on a side on your maps.)
Making Contact with the Natives -- In any new region, where the
natives live will not be visible (save to the novice) unless you take
the time to stop and look for signs. When you have spotted a signal
and move to enter a village, think also of what signal you mean to
send as you go in. Reckless aggression? Cautious friendliness? Open-
handed generosity? The decision is yours alone. And its implications
and consequences are yours alone to bear.
There will be considerable variety in the natives you encounter. Some
will be more populous, some more credulous, some more hostile, and
some more complex combinations of those attributes. If you would
survive and prosper, learn to use your ears and eyes for clues to the
natives' moods and the patterns in their responses to your actions and
combinations of actions.
Trade or Conquest -- Both approaches are available to you. Both, if
successful, bring valuable bearers as well as goods. To trade, as the
natives will be quick to tell (if your gait and perhaps your
generosity seem suitable), you must deal directly with the chief. He
always stands in the center of the village until an aggressive threat
causes hiin to vanish or yield in despair.
Conquest is quick, but it consumes lives and leaves bitter memories.
Trading is safer, but it is also slower and requires many goods. Take
whatever actions your heart and mind tell you to take -- and attend to
what you learn about yourself in the bargain. And hearken. None but
novices should always believe everything their bearers tell them --
especially bearers far from home on an expedition whose food is going
stale. And consider that the natives remember long and well what
treatment they receive at your hands. Let your future dreams temper
your present schemes.
From The Historical Record
On his final voyage, Columbus found him self stranded in Jamaica. At
first the natives supplied food; but the voracious appetites of the
explorers -- they consumed 15 to 20 times as much food as the natives
did themselves -- soon put them out of favor. The Spanish were slowly
Columbus devised a stratagem. His almanac predicted a total eclipse
of the moon on the last night of February 1504. Columbus summoned the
native chieftan and announced that Almighty God was displeased with
their treatment of His chosen emissary. If food was not brought to
the Spanish, the Lord would darken the moon forever.
The eclipse began at moonrise. Soon the entire village ran howling to
Columbus' ship, imploring him to halt the destruction. Columbus
waited in his cabin until the full eclipse phase had passed, then
emerged and took credit for a successful intercession on their behalf.
Columbus and his men enjoyed an ample food supply for the duration of
Establishing Forts and Missions -- Both trade and conquest can bring
you the opportunity to establish a mission on the site. How many men
you must leave to establish more than a thinly manned fort, and how
few to avoid an overgarrisoned armory, will depend on the size of the
native population at the site. Let the pictures signifying fort and
mission be your guide. And let experience tell you how eager the
conquered are to throw off their yokes during your absence.
From the Historical Record
At times the natives were only too willing for the Spanish to
establish armed garrisons in their own land. Guacanagari, chieftan of
a Haitian tribe, implored Columbus to establish a colony so that
Spanish guns could help him defeat his rivals on the island. Columbus
had his own reasons for wanting to found such a colony. Thus was Villa
de la Navidad (Christmas Town) the first settlement and first armed
fort in the New World.
1. Pay attention to the time of year and to your latitude. Toward the
far north and south, the effects of climate become visible in the fall,
winter and spring. And, since how much food you'll find in a village
depends on when the last harvest was, you'll find paying attention to
the season materially rewarding as well as aesthetically pleasing.
2. Don't underestimate native communications. Some can spread word of
your activities to cities you haven't visited yet. And bearers can
show you the location of other settlements -- and of treasures, if you
pause long enough to listen to them.
3. A mission can supply nearby ships and cause the sailors to wait
patiently for the return of the landing pary, provided care has been
taken to inform the mission inhabitants of the location of the ships.
1540 and Beyond -- Within 50 years of Columbus' first voyage, the
Spanish had conquered the New World's most advanced civilizations and
had begun to consolidate one half of the territory into a colonial
empire. Center stage began to pass from the Spanish Conquistadors to
the traders and settlers of many nations who followed.
You may continue your explorations after 1540 if you wish, but you
will receive no more titles from the Court or other recognition for
your efforts. If you wish to see the complete map of the territory
you've been exploring so you can begin anew with a New World, see the
reference card that came with your program disk for the appropriate
actions and keystrokes.
[ Graphic omitted: Picture of ornately decorated old-fashioned
Notes on the World Maker -- Calling brand new New Worlds "random
continents" conveys something of their challenge and variability, but
it doesn't do justice to the sophistication of the program that
produces them. New Worlds are not simply drawn willy-nilly. They
conform to geological and cultural principles built into the program
There is, for instance, a plate tectonics model consulted for each
creation. Mountain ranges are generated where the plates bump into
each other. And secondary ranges (like the Allegheny mountains on the
historical map) may be created as well.
The program also consults a cultural dissemination model for its work.
The influences of major civilizations are presumed to spread outward.
Consequently, pueblo dwellers generally will be found between city-
states and primitive agriculturists. The model will allow for varying
levels of this influence and can thus produce occasional continent
arrangements which have no Incan level civilizations. Alternately, it
can make very rich and powerful arrangements, ones which, like 16th-
Century Japan, are highly civilized from coast to coast.
Competitive Play -- Though only one player may use and save a position
on a particular map disk, competitive opportunities may be created by
using side 2 of the program disk to make multiple copies of a map disk.
Several different players might then explore the same terrain,
comparing progress periodically or simply declaring the winner to be
the player with the highest totals and title by some agreed upon date.
(Note: You can start a new game with a map disk without disturbing a
game previously saved to that disk, but you cannot save more than one
game on any given disk.)
The following sources were used for background research for the game
design. We hope that playing the game will make you as curious about
the conquistador experience as creating the game made us. If it does,
these will serve as good starting places for your deeper journey into
this fascinating period in the world's history. (We especially enjoyed
Louis B. Wright's Gold, Glory and Gospel.)
Bourne, Edward Gaylord. Spain In America 1450-1580. New York: Barnes
and Noble, Inc., 1962.
Debenham, Frank. Discovery and Exploration, An Atlas of Man's
Wanderings. New York: Doubleday, 1960.
De Bry, Theodore. Edited by Michael Alexander. Discovering the New
World. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.
Delpar, Helen. The Discoverers -- An Encyclopedia of Explorers and
Exploration, Great Ages of Man Series. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.
Descola, jean. The Conquistadors. New York: Augustus M. Kelly, 1957.
Dorset, Phyllis F. Historic Ships Afloat. New York: The Macmillan Co.,
Driver, Harold E. The Americans on the Eve of Discovery. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964.
Editors of American Heritage. The American Heritage Book of Indians.
American Heritage Publishing Co., 1961.
Gibson, Charles. Spain in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.
Hale, John R., and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Age of Exploration,
Great Ages of Man Series. New York: Time, Inc., 1966.
Herman, Paul. The Great Age of Discovery. Translated by Arnold J.
Pomerans. New York: Harper and Row, 1958.
Maddocks, Melvin. The Atlantic Crossing, The Seafarers Series. Time-
Life Books. New York: Time, Inc., 1981.
Parry, John Harris. The Discovery of South America. New York:
Taplinger Publishing Co., 1979.
Roberts, Gail. Atlas of Discovery. New York: Crown Publishers, 1973.
Sanders, William T. & Joseph Marino. New World Prehistory. New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Saver, Carl. Sixteenth Century North America. California: University
of California Press, 1971.
Svensson, Sam. Sails Through the Centuries. New York: The Macmillan
Wright, Louis B. Gold, Glory and Gospel. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
BASIC JOYSTICK CONTROL INFORMATION
General -- Moving the joystick moves the expedition. Pressing the
button while moving changes speed. Pressing the button while at rest
produces an options menu.
The Exception -- Pressing the button while moving at sea sets your
course. You may release the joystick and you will continue on course
until you move it again to change directions. Pressing the button
while sailing on course produces the options menu.
In the Options Menu -- Moving the joystick up and down moves the
highlight from option to option. Pressing the button selects the
In the Transfer Menus -- Moving the joystick up and down moves the
highlight from item to item. Moving it right and left transfers
quantities of the highlighted item from column to column. The price
of items and the amount of gold or goods you have to spend appear at
the bottom of the screen. If you are simply transferring resources
and not buying or bartering, holding the button down will speed up the
process. To leave a transfer menu, push the joystick up until the
word "leave" appears, then press your button.
CREATING A MAP DISK
Historical -- Boot side 2 of your program disk and follow the
instructions as they appear on the screen.
Random Continents -- Boot side 1 of your program disk and follow the
instructions as they appear on the screen.
[ Graphic omitted: Sketch of two standing anchors and chain. ]
| Symbol | Color | Organization | Economy |
| h | | | |
| [ single hut with | Dark Brown | tribal | poor |
| chimney ] | | |hunter/gatherer |
| h | | | |
| h | Dark Brown | tribal | rich |
| [ two huts with | | |hunter/gatherer |
| chimneys ] | | | |
| h | | | |
| h h | Light Brown | tribal | primitive |
| [ three huts with | | | agriculture |
| short chimneys ] | | | |
| n n | | | |
| n n | Green | chiefdom | agriculture |
| [ four huts with- | | | |
| out chimneys ] | | | |
| /\ | | | |
| ++ | Pink | city-state | agriculture |
| [ ornate pyramid ] | |confederation | |
| ++ | | | |
| ][ | Light Blue | empire/ | advanced |
| ++ | | nation | agriculture |
| [ very ornate | | | |
| structure ] | | | |
2755 Campus Drive San Mateo, CA 94403 (415) 571-7171